Arguments against Universal Redemption
††††††††† As concerning the point of Universal Redemption, we find various sentiments, or various explications of the matter, given to us by adversaries; for they do not all agree in their apprehensions of the thing. Some explain the matter thus, God sent his only begotten Son to be a Redeemer and Propitiator for Adam and all his posterity; who by his death did pacify an angry God, and restore mankind to their lost inheritance; so as all, who are now condemned, are not condemned for their former sins and guilt; for Christ hath abundantly satisfied for these; but for their unbelief, for not believing in the Redeemer of the world, and for rejecting the reconciliation made, and the grace of God declared in the word. And thus, they must say, that Christ hath died for all sins, but unbelief; and that salvation doth not certainly follow upon this reconciliation; and so that it is rather a reconcilableness, than a reconciliation; and they must necessarily maintain, that this matter is revealed unto all and every son of Adam, who otherwise cannot be guilty of rejecting this reconciliation,
otherwise it shall be of no advantage to them; unless they say, that the want of the revelation puts them out of a capacity of being guilty of unbelief; and so they must necessarily be saved; and thus their condition shall be undoubtedly better, than is the condition of such, as hear the Gospel; and then the revelation of the Gospel shall be no favor, but a prejudice rather.† And in reference to this, they devise a Universal Antecedanious Love, whereby God, out of his infinite goodness, was inclined to desire the happiness and salvation of every motherís son; and therefore to send his Son to die for: as if God had such natural and necessary inclinations; and as if all his love to mankind, and every appointment of his concerning us, were not the free act of his good pleasure; and as if there were any such antecedent and conditional will in God, that could or might have no issue or accomplishment, but as Lord Freewill would; and as if the Love that sent Christ, were only such a poor conditional inclination towards all mankind, which the Scripture holds forth, as the greatest of loves, and as the ground or all the effects and grants, which manís full salvation calls for. But why could not this love effectuate the good of all? Therefore, they tell us, that justice being injured by sin, unless it were satisfied, that love of God, whereby he wishes well to all sinners, could effectuate nothing, as to the recovery of any: and upon this ground they imagine, Christ was sent to make a universal atonement; and so, justice, being satisfied, might not obstruct the salvation of any, whose free will would consent unto terms of new to be proposed.
††††††††† Others hold forth the matter thus, Christ, according to the eternal Counsel of God, did properly die for this end, and by his propitiatory sacrifice obtain, that all and every man, who believe in him, should for his sake actually obtain remission of sins, and life eternal; but others, in case they would repent and believe, might obtain it. But thus we hear no word of Christ obtaining anything to any in particular; no word of his obtaining faith and repentance: and what counsel of God can this be, to send Christ to die for persons, upon that condition, which he knew they would not and could not perform? And what by this means hath Christís propitiatory sacrifice obtained more, than a mere possibility of salvation, to either one or other? Shall we imagine, that God designs good to persons, who shall never enjoy it? Or that God hath conditional intentions and designs? By this means, Christís death was designed, and no person designed thereby to be saved, yea Christ should be designed to die, and that for no certain end, unless to procure a mere possibility, by stopping the mouth of justice, that it should not sand in the way: but then we cannot say, that God sent Christ to die for any man, much less for all.
††††††††† Others express the matter thus, Christ, out of the gracious decree and purpose of God, did undergo death, that he might procure and obtain reconciliation with God for all sinners whatsoever, without any difference, before that God would open again the door of salvation, and enter into a new Covenant of Grace with sinners. But this reconciliation hath no more force, or import, but that God might enter again into a covenant
with sinners: and so there is no actual reconciliation of sinners unto God. And all that is obtained, is for God, and nothing for man, save a possibility of salvation by a new covenant; nor are we told, whether Christ hath satisfied for the breach of the first covenant, so that that sin is fully pardoned unto all; or not, until the condition of the second covenant be performed: nor are we told, upon what account the sins against the second covenant are pardoned; or if they be unpardonable.
††††††††† Others explain the matter thus, Christ died for all and every man, not only that God might, without any violation of justice, enter into a new covenant with sinners, upon what condition he pleased; but that it should be upon this condition, that man should be united with Christ the Cautioner: and not only, that redemption and salvation should be possible to all, but that really and most certainly salvation should be bestowed on such, as Christ thought good. But seeing Christ knew, that his death would profit none, but these few, whom he had designed, to what purpose should he have laid down his life for the rest? And how can his death be a price of redemption for the rest? How can Christ be said to satisfy for the rest? Did he purchase faith to these few; and would he not purchase faith to the rest, and yet lay down the great price for them? What was the end obtained for the rest? Justice being satisfied, was it only a possible call of all? But of what import could that possible call be, if salvation was not also possible unto them? And whereunto is that call? They will not say, it is unto salvation, but to faith: But did not Christ know, that this call would not be obeyed by them? Did he procure grace unto them, to obey it? Then he procured faith, and if he procured faith, then he procured salvation. Again, if justice be satisfied for these others, why are they not liberated? If they say, the new condition is not fulfilled, then it cannot be simply said, that Christ satisfied justice on their behalf, for he knew beforehand, that these would not perform the new condition; how can he then be supposed to die for them notwithstanding?
††††††††† Thus we see what difference is among men, that hold universal redemption, about the proper and immediate end and aim, of the purpose of God, in sending Christ to die; and of Christ in coming to die: and how, for the most part, it comes all to little, or nothing, for it was, says Arminius, that God might save sinners what way it pleased him, his justice, which stood in the way, being satisfied. Or as Corvinus, That God might will to save sinners, and that Christ intended by his death, to make such satisfaction to justice, as that he might obtain to himself power of saving upon what condition the Father pleased. And thus Christ is said to have obtained reconciliation and redemption to all, not that they should actually be partakers thereof, but that God, his justice now being satisfied, might prescribe a condition, which when they had performed, he might and would actually make them partakers thereof: Some say, that all men are put into a new covenant, in which Adam was a common person, as well, as in the old, by virtue whereof, none shall be damned that do not sin actually against the condition, and fall thereby from that new state, whereunto they are born. And this opinion
differs not much from that of Jacobus Andreae at the conference at Mompelgard, which afterward Huberus maintained (as Kimedoncius shows, in his refutation of the same) which was this in short, That Christ suffered and died for all, none excepted, effectually, and obtained for all a reconciliation, without any respect to faith, or unbelief; so that all who receive this reconciliation and continue in it, shall be saved, but as to those who refuse it by unbelief, it is made null, and they perish. Others say that Christ by his satisfaction removed original sin in all, so that all infants, dying in infancy, are undoubtedly saved. Others say that he died for all sins alike, but conditionally. Some say that after the price was paid, it was absolutely undetermined, what condition should be prescribed; so as God might have re-established the covenant of works. Others say that the procuring of a new way was part of the fruit of Christís death. As for this condition, some say that man can perform it with the help of such means, as God affords to all, and thus establish the Diana of Freewill. But others assert the necessity of grace flowing from election hereunto, and so destroy universal redemption, which yet they assert. So that some say, Christ died for all conditionally, if they believe, making the act the cause of its own object; for faith with them is a believing that Christ died for them. Some say that he died for all absolutely; yet so as they partake not of the benefit, until they perform the condition, which was to be prescribed; and thus they affirm, that Christ did no more sustain the persons of the elect, than of the reprobate, but of all alike. If we enquire therefore, what was the immediate result and product of the death of Christ, they agree not to tell us, whether it was a power, or a will, or a right, to God, to save any he please.
††††††††† However all the Arminians and Camero with them agree in this; that Christ did not purchase faith for any: and that as to all (say some) or as to the most part (say others) Christ hath only procured a possibility of salvation: And what is this possibility? Some call it an exemption from that necessity of perishing, under which they came by the violation of the former covenant, if a satisfaction had not intervened; and by his exemption, they say, it comes to pass, that Christ, if he will, justice being now satisfied, may bring all to life: And hereby also, say they, all may be saved, if they will: But what is this other than a mere possibility? What efficacy hath it, seeing notwithstanding thereof, all may perish again? They say, it is really efficacious as to this possibility, which was not, before justice was satisfied: But yet notwithstanding of this efficacious possibility, it might come to pass, that not one should have been saved: for how can salvation be possible without faith? So that if faith be not hereby purchased, it would seem, that salvation is not possible. And further, it doth hereby appear, that all which is procured, is but some power to God and to Christ; But what is manís advantage? They say, that a way to life is opened unto man, that so he may now come to God by faith and repentance. But how can he come, who hath no power to believe or repent, without grace? Or is it in corrupt manís power to believe or repent?
††††††††† What that truth is, which we stand for, is plainly and fully enough set down in several places of our Confession of Faith: as chapter 3, section 6, As God hath appointed the elect unto glory; so hath he, by the eternal and most free purpose of his will, foreordained all the means thereunto. Wherefore they who are elected, being fallen in Adam, are redeemed by Christ, are effectually called unto faith in Christ by his Spirit, working in due season; are justified, adopted, sanctified, and kept by his power through faith unto salvation. Neither are other redeemed by Christ, effectually called, justified, adopted, sanctified and saved; but the elect only. So chapter 8 section 1, It pleased God, in his eternal purpose, to chose and ordain the Lord Jesus, his only begotten Son, to be the Mediator between God and man. Unto whom he did from all eternity give a people to be his seed, and to be by him in time redeemed, called, justified, sanctified and glorified. And ibid. section 5, The Lord Jesus by his perfect obedience, and sacrifice of himself; which he through the eternal Spirit, once offered up unto God, hath fully satisfied the justice of his Father, and purchased, not only reconciliation, but an everlasting inheritance in the Kingdom of heaven, for all those, whom the Father hath given unto him. So ibid. section last, To all those, for whom Christ hath purchased redemption, he doth certainly and effectually apply and communicate the same, making intercession for them, and revealing unto them, in and by the word, the mysteries of salvation, effectually persuading them by his Spirit to believe and obey; and governing their hearts by his word and Spirit, overcoming all their enemies by his almighty power and wisdom, in such manner and ways, as are most consonant to his wonderful and unsearchable dispensations. Our judgment is this, in short, that Christ, according to the good pleasure of his Father, laid down his life a ransom for the elect only, who were given to him to save from wrath, and destruction; and by that price purchased salvation, and all the means necessary thereunto, for them only to whom in due time, and after the method, which he thinks best, doth effectually apply the same unto them, and actually save them.
Though grounds sufficient, considering the places of Scriptures, annexed in the margin of the Confession, confirming all, are clearly hinted and laid down, in these passages cited; yet I shall, with what brevity is possible, point forth our grounds in plain terms. And (1.) The Scripture is full and plain, in holding forth a Covenant betwixt Jehovah and the Mediator, a transaction concerning man; or the purposes of God concerning the salvation of man, in way of a mutual compact; both for our better understanding of that solid ground of our peace and hope, and for the confirming of our staggering and weak faith. And though the full explication and confirmation hereof, would, I judge, fully undermine and destroy the rotten grounds of Socinians and Arminians, and of all, who are for the Diana of Freewill, and enemies to the grace of God; yet I cannot digress thereunto here; and shall only refer such, as would see the same confirmed, unto Mr. Dicksonís Therapeutica Sacra, and Mr. Rutherfordís book upon the Covenant. Taking it therefore for granted, till what is by these Worthies said anent it, be confuted; and finding, that Arminius himself in his Orat. de Sacerdotio Christi, says there was a covenant betwixt the Lord and Christ, I shall but shortly infer therefrom, that it is repugnant to reason, to say, that the result of
that eternal transaction: and the whole intended by it, was only to procure a mere possibility of salvation; and that such a possibility, as that though it was equally for all; yet it might so fall out, that not one person should be saved, among all the sons of Adam. How unreasonable is it to imagine such a bargain betwixt the Father and the Son, as among men, considering what they are doing, can have no place? If Christ was to see his seed, by virtue of this contract, then certainly God had a special eye and respect unto that seed; and that seed must be distinguished from all the rest, for it cannot be all, else all should be saved: and so Christ did not undertake to buy all, nor did the Father give him all, for his seed: and in reference to that seed, the redemption purchased must be an actual, and not a mere potential, or possible redemption; and the Lord must have full power and dominion over the will of that seed, whereby he may determine their hearts unto a following of the method, which he was to prescribe; and all these means, whereby this actual closing with the conditions was to be effectually wrought, must have been secured: for a transaction betwixt persons, infinite in wisdom, must of necessity be, in all things, contrived in deep wisdom. So then, if by virtue of this covenant, a seed was ensured to Christ, it was these concerning whom the transaction was made; for what interest could others have in this, or advantage by it? And so the redemption was neither universal; nor yet merely possible, and no more.
††††††††† Again, (2.) the Scripture everywhere points out the end of Christís coming and dying, to have been, to procure and obtain some good to man; it were endless to cite the Scriptures speaking this out plainly: But if it had been only to have procured a possibility, then the proper and immediate end of his dying, had been only to have procured something to God, viz. a power to him, that he might, without hurt to his justice, prescribe a possible way of salvation. Now, not to discuss that question, agitated among orthodox Divines, viz. whether it was impossible for God to have pardoned the sins of man, without a satisfaction made by his Son, or not; meaning antecedently to a decree, determining this way of manifestation of the justice of God; only I must say, that as yet I can see nothing from Scripture, determining the egress of the relative justice of God, to be more essential to God, and less subject to the free determinations of his good will and pleasure, than are the egresses of his mercy; nor do I see any necessity for asserting this against the Socinians, seeing our ground, walking upon a decree, is proof against all their assaults; far less see I any necessity of founding our whole debate with the Socinians, upon that ground; yea I cannot but judge it the result of great imprudence so to do, seeing the Socinians may reply, that the sole ground of that opposition to them is not only questioned, but plainly denied, by such as we count orthodox and learned; and may hence gather, that we have no other solid ground, whereupon to debate with them, but such as the learned of our own side overthrow. The depths of Godís counsel are beyond our fathoming; and it is hard for us to say, hithertill the omnipotent can come, but not one inch further. I dare not be wise above what is written; and I would gladly see one passage of Scripture, declaring
this to have been in itself utterly impossible, and inconsistent with God. But whatever may be said of this, what Scripture tells us, that Christ was sent to die, that he might obtain this power unto God? And further, what was this power? Was it a mere Power and Liberty, that should never have any effect? If it was to have an effect, what was that? Was it only to make a new transaction with man, in order to his salvation? If that was all, notwithstanding of all this power and ability, not one man might have been saved. Was it certainly to save some? Then, the Redemption cannot be called Universal, nor yet merely possible. Nay, if by the death of Christ a right and power only was obtained to God, God was at full liberty to have exercised that right and power, or not, as he pleased; and so notwithstanding thereof man might have remained in the same condition, whereinto he was, and never so much as have had one offer of life, upon any terms whatever; or only upon the old terms of the covenant of works; and what then should the advantage of this have been? The whole Scripture, speaking of the death of Christ, mentions far other ends, respecting man.
††††††††† If we (3.) consider how the Scripture mentions, a number given of the Father to Christ, to be redeemed and saved, we shall see, that there is neither a universal, nor yet a mere possible redemption: for this gift is utterly repugnant to, and destructive of both: for if, conformed to the covenant betwixt the Father and the Son, there were some given to Christ to save and redeem, these he must actually save and redeem; and for these only, was Christ ordained and designed of the Father to be a Redeemer; and upon the account of these only, did he undertake the work, and lay down the ransom money: for it is not rational to suppose, that, the design of Father and Son being to save actually these gifted ones, Christ would shed his blood for others, who were not given to him, and who should receive no salvation by his blood; for cui bono? what could be the design of Father and Son in this? The matter goes not so in human transactions, where the price is considerable. Now, that the Scripture mentions some given to Christ, and that in distinction from others, is clear John 17: 2, that he should give eternal life to as many, as thou hast given him. So verse 12, Those that thou hast given me, I have kept, and none of them are lost, &c. So John 6: 37, All that the Father hath given me, shall come unto me. And verse 40, And this is the Fatherís will, that hath sent me, that of all which he hath given me, I should lose nothing. John 17, 9 I pray for them, I pray not for the world, but for them, which thou hast given me; for they are thine. 10 And all thine are mine and mine are thine, and I am glorified in them. 11 ÖFather, keep through thine own name those whom thou hast given me. 24 Father I will, that they also whom thou hast given me, be with me where I am, &c. Whence we see, that Christ had no charge of the rest; was under no tie to save them, nor would he so much as pray for them: but as for the given ones, called his sheep in John 10, for these he laid down his life, and prayed; and for these he was to give an account: nay, which is more, these had a special interest in Godís heart and affection and were thereupon given to Christ. They were the Fatherís, and given of the Father
to the Son; and so fully discriminated from all the rest; and both Father and Son stand engaged to carry these through unto salvation: all which considered, it is most plain, that the redemption was particular and actual, conforming to the undertaking, and transaction.
††††††††† Nay, (4.) If we will consider the fountain love, from whence the sending of Christ came, we will see how unreasonable it is to imagine a universal mere possible redemption, as the proper end and effect, of Christís death and merits. It is said in John 3: 16, a place, which our Universalists look upon, as most favorable to themselves, that God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that all believers in him, might have eternal life. This love is held forth as beyond any parallel, a love greater than which cannot be conceived, and a love demonstrated by the greatest effect imaginable, sending and giving his only begotten, to give his life a ransom, and to die for sinners; and it must be contrary to all reason, to imagine, that all this was to procure a redemption, by which it was possible, that not one man should be actually redeemed. Christ himself says, John 15: 13, greater love hath no man, than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends. See also Romans 5: 8. And shall we think, that the effect of all this non-such love, both of the Father, and of the Son, was only a possible salvation, and redemption, and that all this love should be poured out; and possibly not one man saved? Either the Lord knew, that some would get good by this fruit of wonderful love, or not. If he knew not, then he was not omniscient: and then the Father gave his Son, and the Son came, and both were the effect of the greatest love imaginable, and yet neither of them knew, that any one soul should be saved for all that. If he knew, that they would get good by it, either by themselves alone, without his grace, or not, then: If the first, why would he send his Son to die, and why would Christ come to die for such, as they saw would never have a will to be saved by his death? If the last be said, then, seeing the greatest expression of love was to send his Son, and in the Son to come and die, how can we think, that that was for all, when the grace to improve that death, and profit by it, was not designed for all? Says not Paul, Romans 8: 32, He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall not with him also freely give us all things? óimporting that that was impossible. Shall we imagine that that is the greatest love, which is common to all, and is not able to effectuate the salvation of those upon whom it is set? And how can this be, that the greatest effect of this greatest love shall be common to all, and smaller effects not common also? See also John 4: 9, 10, 11, where this special love, by which Christ was sent, is made peculiar unto believers; for John is speaking of none else: So is this love peculiarly terminated on Christís wife and Church, Ephesians 5: 26, 27, and hath gracious and saving effects, Galatians 2: 20, Titus 3: 4, 5, 6, 7, Ephesians 2: 4, 5, 6, Romans 8: 36, 37, II Thessalonians 2: 16, 17, Revelation 1: 5, 6. Also, this love is mentioned as an old, everlasting, and unchangeable love, Jeremiah 31: 3, Ephesians 1: 3, 4, Romans 9: 11, John 13: 1, Zephaniah 3: 17. And is all this nothing but a general common thing, that cannot save one soul, if Lord Free-Will does not consent, of his own accord?
††††††††† Moreover (5.) if we consider the ends assigned to the death of Christ,
mentioned in Scripture, we shall see that it was some other thing, than a mere possible delivery and redemption, common to all mankind. Matthew 18: 11, He came to save that which was lost; and not to make their salvation merely possible; for if that were all, Christís argument should have had no strength: So also I Timothy 1: 15, Jesus came into the world to save sinners: if it were a mere possibility, that might never take effect, how should this faithful saying be worthy of all acceptation; So Luke 19: 10, where the matter is exemplified in Zacchaeus. Matthew 1: 21, the reason of the name Jesus, given to the Redeemer is, because he shall save his people from their sins, that is, actually and really, and not potentially or possibly only: and this cannot be meant of all; for he saves not the reprobate from their sins; at least, not from the sin of unbelief, by the confession of our adversaries; But here, no sin is excepted, and therefore is his death restricted to his people, whom he saves from all their sins. Hebrews 2: 14, 15, there is another end of his death mentioned, viz. that he might destroy him that had the power of death, that is the devil, and deliver them, who through fear of death, were all their life time subject to bondage. This was no mere possible deliverance, but actual and effectual; and it was not common to all; for it is restricted to his brethren, verses 11, 12, 17, and to sons, and to the children which God gave him (verse 13), and to the seed of Abraham (verse 16), and again ówherefore in all things it behooved him to be made like unto his brethren, that he might be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, to make reconciliation for the people, (verse 17). Behooved Christ to be a merciful and faithful High Priest in things pertaining to God, only to make a possible reconciliation, whereby it might be, that not one person should be reconciled? And, are the reprobate his brethren? To what end did Christ give himself for his Church? (And all the world of mankind belong not to his Church.) It was that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water, by the word, that he might present it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot or wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy and without blemish, Ephesians 5: 25, 26. Is this a mere possibility? Then might Christ have died, and have no Church to present to himself fair and spotless: His Church might have remained full of spots and wrinkles, unholy and full of blemishes; yea should have been no Church. Titus 2: 14, He gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people zealous of good works. Does all the world belong to his peculiar people? Doth Christ redeem all the world from all iniquity? Is all the world purified and made zealous of good works? Or is all this mere maybe, which may not be? II Corinthians 5: 21, He hath made him to be sin for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the righteousness of God in him. Was Christ made sin, or a sacrifice for sin, that all the world might possibly be made the righteousness of God in him, that is, that possibly not one person might be made the righteousness of God in him? Who can dream thus, that Godís intentions and designs should be so loose and frustrateable, and that God should be so uncertain in his purposes? In Galatians 1: 4, why did the Lord Jesus give himself for our sins? It was, that he might deliver us from this present evil world, according to the will of God and our Father. This is no mere possible
deliverance; and it is such as was designed not for all the world, but for the us, there mentioned. So chapter 4: 4, 5 ĖGod sent forth his Son, made of a woman, made under the law, to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of son. This real benefit is manifestly here restricted. John 17: 19, for their sakes I sanctify myself, that they also may be sanctified through the truth, Christ sanctified himself, to be an oblation, not to obtain a mere maybe; but that they, for whose sake he did sanctify himself, that is, they that were given to him, verse 6: 9, and were his own, verse 10, and were in due time to believe in him, verse 20, might really and actually be sanctified through him. In Hebrews 13: 12, wherefore did Jesus suffer without the gate? It was, that he might sanctify the people with his own blood; surely, this is more, than a maybe. Romans 3: 25, 26, Why did God set forth Christ to be a propitiation? It was, to declare his righteousness, for the remission of sins that are past, that he might be just, and the justifier of him, that believeth in Jesus: a certain, real thing. Many more passages might be added to this purpose, but these may suffice, to discover the absurd falsehood of this doctrine.
††††††††† Add (6.) such passages, as mention the actual accomplishment and effect of Christís death, where it will yet more appear, that this was no mere maybe, or possible thing, but that which was to have a certain being and reality as to the persons, for whom it was designed; Such as Hebrews 1: 3, when he had by himself purged our sins. Can their sins be said to be purged, who pine away in hell forever, because of their sins? Could this be true, if no man had been saved? And yet, if it had been a mere possible and maybe redemption, it might have come to pass, that not one person should have been actually saved. So Hebrews 9: 12 Ėby his own blood he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption. Is a mere possible redemption to be called an eternal redemption, and was that all that Christ obtained? Then Christís blood was more ineffectual in the truth, than the type was, in its typicalness; for the blood of bulls and goats, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling the unclean, did not obtain a possible and maybe sanctification, and purifying of the flesh; but did actually and really sanctify to the purifying of the flesh, verse 13. Again in verse 14, (which also confirms what is now said) how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without spot to God, purge your conscience from dead works, to serve the living God. So that all such, for whom he offered himself, and shed his blood, and none else, have their consciences purged from dead works, to serve the living God: and who would dare say, that this is common to all, or is a mere maybe, which the Apostle both restricts and asserts, as a most certain thing; Again in verse 26, -but now once in the end of the world, hath he appeared, to put away sin, by the sacrifice of himself. So that he did actually and really, and not possibly and potentially only, put away sin; the sin, viz. of those, for whom he was a sacrifice, even of them, that look for him, and to whom he shall appear a second time, without sin unto salvation, verse 28. And surely, no man in his wits will say, that this is the whole world. Galatians 3: 13, Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse
for us. 14 That the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ, that we might receive the promise of the Spirit, through faith. Here are three ends and effects of Christís redemption mentioned, which no man will say, are common to all, viz. redemption from the curse of the law; and this was really, and not potentially only done, by Christ being made a curse for us; the communication of the blessings of Abraham, and the promise of the Spirit, which are ensured to such as are redeemed from the curse of the Law, and to none else. So Ephesians 2: 13 Ė 16. But now in Christ Jesus, ye, who sometimes were afar off, are made nigh by the blood of Christ; for he is our peace, who hath made both one, and hath broken down the middle wall of partition between us; having abolished in his flesh the enmity, the law of commandments in ordinances; for to make to himself of twain one new man, so making peace; and that he might reconcile both unto God, in one body, by the cross, having slain the enmity thereby. To which add the parallel place Colossians 1: 21, 22 and 2: 14, 15, was all this delivery from wrath, enmity, law of commandments and whatever was against us, but a mere potential thing, and a maybe, common to all, in whose power it was to cause it to take effect, or not, as they pleased? Isaiah 53: 5, He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities, the chastisement of our peace was upon him, and with his stripes we are healed, with I Corinthians 15: 3, -Christ died for our sins, and I Peter 2: 24, who his own self bear our sins in his own body, on the tree Ėby whose stripes we are healed: How can we then imagine, that all this was a mere maybe, seeing he was so bruised for our iniquities, so died for our sins, so bear our sins, in his own body; as that thereby all, in whose room he stood, are healed by his stripes? The Apostle doth moreover fully clear this matter, Romans 5: 6 ĖChrist died for the ungodly. Was this for all? Or was it to have an uncertain end and effect? No, verse 9, much more then being justified by his blood, we shall be saved from wrath through him. The ungodly and the sinners, for whom he died, are such as become justified by his blood, and shall at length be fully saved from wrath. And again inverse 10, for if when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God, by the death of his Son; much more being reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. Upon his death follows reconciliation with God, and then salvation; and his death is for no more than his life is for. By him also they receive an atonement, verse 11. As the consequences and effects of Adamís sin did certainly, and not by a maybe, redound to all, that he represented and engaged for; so the fruits and effects of Christís death do as certainly come unto such, as are his, as the Apostle clears, in the following verses, laying the advantage on the side of Christ and his; verse 15, -much more the grace of God, and the gift by grace, by one man Jesus Christ, hath abounded unto many, verse 16, -but the free gift is of many offenses, unto justification, verse 17 Ėmuch more they, which receive abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life, by one Jesus Christ, verse 18 Ėeven so by the righteousness of one, the free gift came upon all men to justification of life, verse 19, -so by the obedience of one shall many be made righteous, verse 21 Ėso might grace reign, through righteousness unto eternal life, by Jesus Christ, our Lord. Is all this a common thing, and a mere maybe, or possibility? John 10: 11 he giveth
his life for his sheep, and verse 15. But may they for all that perish? No, in no wise, verse 28, and I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish. He came that they might have life, and might have it more abundantly, verse 10. To the same purpose he says, John 6: 33, that he giveth life unto the world, not such a life, surely, as may never quicken any. Upon Christís death doth the Apostle infer, Romans 8: 32, that the Elect shall have all things, and verse 33, 34, 35, that they are free from all accusations, or any hazard therefrom, being justified, and having Christís death, resurrection, and intercession to secure them at all hands; and thereupon they have assurance, that nothing shall separate them from the love of God. Acts 20: 28, Christ hath purchased a Church with his own blood. The whole world is not this Church; nor is this purchase an uncertain maybe; And all this real and certain effect of Christís death, was foretold by Daniel, chapter 9: 24 Ėto finish the transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, &c. And who can imagine, that this is universal, or uncertain?
††††††††† If we will (7.) consider some other ends of the death of Christ, which the Scripture points forth, which are not found to be among the heathens, or any except the few chosen ones, ordained to life, we shall see, how unreasonable the adversaries are. Galatians 4: 5, Christ died to redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons. Was this end, and fruit left at an uncertainty? Shall we think, that Christ might have died, and yet one man receive this adoption? Was this adoption purchased upon an uncertain condition? Or was this purchased equally for all? Then such as received it, might have thanked their own well natured freewill, upon that account. But let us consider some other fruits. Galatians 1: 4 Öwho gave himself for our sins, that he might deliver us from this present evil world. So I Peter 2: 24, he bear our sins, in his own body, on the tree: but for what end: That we being dead to sin, should live unto righteousness: and chapter 3: 18, Christ suffered for sins, the just for the unjust: To what end and purpose? Öto bring us to God. Hebrews 10: 10 Öby which will we are sanctified. How came this to pass? Öthrough the offering of the body of Jesus Christ, once for all. So he suffered outside the gate, that he might sanctify the people, chapter 13: 12. Revelation 1: 5, 6 Öhe loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood. But was this all? No, it is added, and hath made us Kings and Priests unto God, and his Father. So chapter 5: 9, 10 Öthou was slain, and hast redeemed us to God, by thy blood; and what more? And hast made us unto our God, Kings and Priests, &c. So I Corinthians 5: 15, He died for all: But for what end and purpose? That they which live, should not henceforth live unto themselves, but unto him, which died for them, and rose again. See Colossians 1: 22. These and the like passages do clearly point forth a special end of Christís death, which was designed both by the Father, that sent him, and by himself: and shall we suppose, that this great and chief design was made to hang upon the lubric and uncertain will of man? Shall Christ be beholden to manís good will for the purchase he made, at so dear a rate? If not, why are not all these ends attained, in all, for whom he died? Did Christ fail in laying down the ransom? Or doth not the Father
keep condition? Who can say either of these? Then surely, there can be no reason to say, that Christ made an uncertain bargain, and purchased only a possibility of these fruits, which he knew not if ever he should attain, in any one; Nor to say, that he died for all.
††††††††† Let us further (8.) take notice: That for whom Christ died, he died to take away their sins; And that so, as they may be fully pardoned, and never brought on reckoning again: that is, that they be remitted and pardoned; and that the poor sinner may not suffer therefore. This surely must be the import of that prayer, forgive us our trespasses. If then Christ by his death hath taken away sin, and purged it away, making satisfaction to justice therefore, how can we think, that justice can punish the sinner in hell fire, for these same sins? But let us see, what the Scripture says, I John 3: 5 Öhe was manifested to take away our sins. Ephesians 1: 7 we have redemption in his blood: what redemption? forgiveness of sins, according to the riches of his grace. So likewise, Colossians 1: 14. Now when sins are thus taken away, they are blotted out, and not remembered, Isaiah 43: 25, Jeremiah 31: 34, Hebrews 8: 12. Yea they are blotted out as a cloud, and as a thick cloud, Isaiah 44: 22. So they are said to be subdued, and cast into the depths of the sea, Micah 7: 19. Shall we now say, that Christ hath died, to purchase this redemption, the forgiveness and blotting out, as a thick cloud, and casting into the depths of the sea, of sin; and yet multitudes of those, for whom this was purchased, and that by the blood of God, should never obtain this benefit, but have all their own score? This so pinches the adversaries, that the best evasion they can fall upon, is to say, that none shall have original sin charged upon them: But the Scripture no where restricts this remission to that sin only. Others therefore say, that no sin now shall be charged upon any, but the sin of unbelief. Then Judas doth not suffer today, for betraying his master: was it for this sin only, that the old world was drowned; or that the cities of Sodom are suffering the vengeance of eternal fire? Jude seems to say some other thing, verse 7, so are there other sins there reckoned up, verses 8 Ė 13, to which is reserved the blackness of darkness forever. But some say, that these are all but pardoned upon condition. Then the redemption is neither actual and real, nor complete, but a poor maybe, and a maybe not: and how can such sins be said to be forgiven or blotted out, and cast behind Godís back, and into the depths of the sea? Did Christ know, whether or not this condition would be performed? If not, then He is not the omniscient God. If he knew, that it would not be performed by the greatest part, how can we imagine, that he would notwithstanding lay down his life to purchase a remission for them? And how can we think, that He should purchase a pardon to all, and let the event hang upon the pendulous tottering will of a sinful creature? But as to that condition, we shall
††††††††† Propose (9.) this consideration. The non-performance of that condition was no doubt a sin, and if Christ died for all the sins of the world, he died for that too: And if he died for that too, that is taken out of the way, or there must be another condition imagined, upon performance of which,
that is to be taken out of the way; and the non-performance of this condition being also a sin, our proposition will recur upon this, and so infinitum: but if this sin be taken out of the way, it cannot prejudge them of the pardon of the rest: and thus all their sins being pardoned, they must needs be saved: and yet it is not so. But it is said, that Christ died not for the sin of final unbelief; yet it seems, that it will be granted, that he died even for the sin of unbelief of all the world, and for unbelief continued in, until the last hour of a manís life; but not for that last act; which is yet but the same unbelief continued an hour longer; and shall we think, that Christ bore the unbelief of 20, 40, 60, or more years, in his body, on the cross, and not the same unbelief for one hour, or half hour, yea or quarter hour? Who sees not, how little ground there is for such an imagination? But the thing I would have mainly here considered, is this. That for whose sins Christ hath died, he hath died for all their sins; and therefore, if he died for the sins of all the world, he died for the final unbelief of all the world: But this will not be granted; therefore neither can it be said, that He died for the sins of all men. Whose sins he took upon himself to make satisfaction for, he left none for them to answer for; for he is a complete Mediator, and is sole Mediator. If he died for all the rest of the sins of the reprobate, and of the whole world, why not for that also? Surely, when the Scripture speaks of Christ taking away sin, and of the redemption, that is, forgiveness of sins, which people enjoy through him, there is no sin excepted, He was wounded for our transgressions, he was bruised for our iniquities, Isaiah 53: 5. The Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all, verse 6, or made the iniquity of us all to meet on him; there is no ground for any exception here: when he was stricken for transgression, verse 9, and his soul was made an offering for sin, verse 10, is there any appearance of the exception of any one sin? When he bear their sin and their iniquities, verses 11 and 12, what intimation is given of an exception of any? Yea, if this exception was to be made, which would null and destroy all, what consolation could the declaration of this redemption, remission of sins, yield unto poor sinners? Colossians 1: 14, Ephesians 1: 7. When the Lord made him to be sin for us, was it only in part? How then could we be made the righteousness of God in him, II Corinthians 5: 21? Was the Lord in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing only part of their trespasses to them? But the imputing of one sin would mar the reconciliation forever. Is not final unbelief a dead work? Doubtless; yet the blood of Christ purges consciences from dead works, Hebrews 9: 14. Did the blood of bulls and goats so sanctify, as to the purifying of the flesh, as to leave the most defiling spot of all untaken away? How could healing come by his stripes, if he bear but part of our sins, in his body on the tree, seeing final unbelief alone would mar all? For where that is, there is no coming to God imaginable. But moreover, the Scripture tells us, that the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanses us from all sin, I John 1: 7, and that if any man sin, there is an Advocate with the Father, who is a propitiation for sins, I John 2: 1, 2, and so must be for all sins, otherwise there were little ground of comfort here: And it was foretold by Daniel, chapter 9: 24, that he should make an end of sin, and finish he transgression, and so bring in everlasting righteousness.
Doth this admit of exceptions, and of such an exception, as would unavoidably make all null? No certainly. But you will ask of me, if I think, that Christ did die for final unbelief? I answer no. For I judge, it is the sin only of reprobates, who hear the Gospel: and I judge that Christ did not die for any sin of reprobates: But this I hold, and have cleared, that for whose sins soever Christ hath died, he hath died for all their sins: and because he hath not died for final unbelief, therefore he hath not died for any sin of such, as shall be guilty of this: and as for his own, he died to prevent their falling into, and to keep them from this sin; for he died to bring them unto God, that they might have the adoption of sons, that they might be sanctified, and live unto righteousness, be made righteous, yea the righteousness of God; as is clear from I Peter 2: 24, Hebrews 10: 10, II Corinthians 5: 21, I Peter 3: 18, Romans 5: 19. What then will they say to this? Final unbelief is certainly a sin; and Christ either died for it, or not: If he died not for it, then it can be laid to no manís charge; or Christís death is of no value. If he died not for it, he died not for all the sins of all men; but at most, for some sins of all men; and if that was all, no man could thereby be saved, for one sin is enough to procure damnation.
††††††††† Moreover (10.) we find the persons, for whom this price of blood was laid down, designed more particularly, and the object of this redemption restricted; and so it could not be for all and everyone. It is said to be for many, Isaiah 53: 11, Matthew 20: 28 and 26: 28, Mark 10: 45, Hebrews 9: 28, and what these many are, is abundantly declared in other Scriptures, where they are called Christís sheep, John 10: 15. Christís people, Matthew 1: 21, His people, whom according to the predictions of the prophets, which have been, since the world began, he should save from their enemies, and from the hand of all, that hate them, to perform the mercy promised to the Fathers, and to remember his holy covenant, the oath, which he swore to Father Abraham; that he would grant unto them, that being delivered out of the hand of their enemies, they might serve him without fear, in holiness and righteousness, before him, all the days of their life, Luke 1: 68, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75. His church, Ephesians 5: 25, Acts 20: 28. His body, Ephesians 5: 22. The children of God, that were scattered abroad, John 11: 52. Sons, Sanctified, Brethren, the Children that God gave him, that Seed of Abraham, Hebrews 2: 10 Ė 17. They are the sheep, that shall infallibly believe, because sheep, John 10: 26, and whom Christ knoweth, and of whom he is known, verse 14, and such as shall hear his voice, verse 16, and follow him, verse 27, to whom he will give eternal life, so that they shall never perish, and who are given to him of his Father, verses 28, 29, and the elect, II Timothy 2: 10. He is bread giving life unto the world, of them, that the Father hath given him, and shall come to him, John 6: 33, 39. They are these, concerning whom the Fatherís will was, as being given of him, that he should lose nothing, but raise it up again, at the last day, verses 38, 39, 47. The redeemed ones that are numbered †by God 144,000, and are the first fruits unto God, and the Lamb, Revelation 14: 3, 4, 5. They are such as are the Lordís, and whom the Lord knoweth for his, II Timothy 2: 19, and are enrolled in the Lambís book, Revelation 13: 8 and 20: 15. So are they designed to be these, for whom God is, and who shall have unquestionably
all things; the Elect who shall be justified, who shall not be separated from the love of Christ; are in all things more than conquerors, Romans 8: 31 Ė 34, 37 Ė 39. These with whom the covenant shall be confirmed, Daniel 9: 27. The redeemed out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation; and made kings and priests, Revelation 5: 9, 10.
††††††††† Further (11.) if Christ died for the sins of all persons, how comes it that they are not all actually pardoned? It cannot be said, that Christís death was not a satisfactory price, nor that the Father did not accept of it: If then he shed his blood for the remission of sins, Matthew 26: 28, are not all these sins pardoned virtually and fundamentally? Or shall they not all actually be pardoned in due time? If it be said, they shall be pardoned upon condition of their faith, I answer: If the sins of all be equally paid for, and equally in a virtual manner discharged, in Christís being actually discharged from that debt, in the day of his resurrection; and the actual discharge depending upon the uncertain condition of manís will; man, who willingly performs the condition, shall praise himself for the actual pardon, and none else; for Christ did no more for him, as to the actual pardon, than for others, who never shall be blessed with actual forgiveness: and yet forgiveness is held forth, as a special act of free grace; forgiveness of sins is according to the riches of his grace, Ephesians 1: 7. Moreover as to that condition, whether did Christ purchase it, or not? If he did not purchase it, then man is not beholden to Christ, for the condition; be it faith, or what ye will, it is no purchased mercy, but man is beholden to his good Lord Free-Will, for it, and so he may sacrifice to his own net, and sing glory to himself, for making himself to differ, and for obtaining to himself actual remission of all his sins, and consequently blessedness, Romans 4: 6, 7, 8. For had not his own well disposed Lord Free-Will performed that condition, all that Christ did, had never more advantaged him, than it did others that perish.
††††††††† If it be said, that grace to perform the condition, though it be not purchased by the blood, of Christ, yet it is freely given by God, to whom He will. I answer, not to insist here, on the proof of faith being purchased by Christ; because we shall clear it afterward, and there is nothing else assigned for the condition, I would enquire, whether Christ knew to whom this grace would be given, or not? If not, then we must deny him to be God: If he knew, why shall we suppose, that he would lay down his life equally for all, when he knew beforehand, that many should never get grace to perform the condition, upon which his death should redound to their actual pardon and justification? What ends, or what advantage can we imagine of such a universal redemption?
††††††††† (12.) If the condition, upon which actual pardon and justification is granted, in the blood of Christ, be purchased by Christ; then either all shall certainly be pardoned and justified, or Christ hath not purchased an equal, common, and possible redemption, to all and every man: But the former is true, and it is not true that all shall certainly be pardoned and actually justified; for then all should be glorified. That the condition, to wit, faith, and repentance is purchased by Christ, who can deny, seeing, he is expressly
called the Author of faith, Hebrews 12: 2, and a Prince exalted to give repentance and forgiveness of sins, Acts 5: 31? So that as forgiveness of sins is founded upon his death, as the meritorious cause; so repentance must be; and Christ, as an exalted Prince and Savior, hath this power to dispose of his own purchased legacy, which he hath left, and ensured by his death, unto the heirs of salvation. Upon his death, and satisfaction made in his death, hath he gotten all power in heaven and earth, a power to quicken whom he will, Matthew 28: 18, John 5: 21, 22, 27, Philippians 2: 9, 10. Hence we are said to be complete in him, Colossians 2: 10, and to be blessed with all spiritual blessings, in celestials (to which, no doubt, faith and repentance do belong) in him, Ephesians 1: 3. Is it not from hence, that the divine power hath given unto us all things, that pertain unto life and godliness, II Peter 1: 3? Nay, Paul tells us expressly, Philippians 1: 29, that it is given to us, in the behalf of Christ, to believe on him. And certainly there is a promise of faith and repentance; and all the promises are yea and amen in Him, II Corinthians 1: 20. All the blessings contained in the covenant, are made sure by his death, who was the surety of this better testament, Hebrews 7: 22, and this testament was to have force by his death, Hebrews 9: 15 Ė 18, and the new heart and heart of flesh, is promised in the covenant, and comprehends faith and repentance, they being some of his laws, which he hath also promised to write in the heart, Jeremiah 31: 33, Hebrews 8: 10, Ezekiel 11: 19, 20 and 36: 26, 27. We have moreover seen that sanctification and holiness, from which, faith and repentance cannot be separated, were purchased by Christ, and intended in his death: whence he is made of God unto us sanctification, I Corinthians 1: 30. If it be not purchased by Christ, how do we come by it? Is it a thing in our power, and an act of our own free-will? Then, as I said before, we are beholden to ourselves, for faith and all that follow upon it, and then farewell all prayer for faith and repentance, and all thanksgiving to God for it. This is pure Pelagianism. If it be said, that it is the free gift of God, Ephesians 2: 8, and a consequent of electing love, I answer: All the fruits of election, which are to be wrought in us, are procured by the blood of Christ, for all are conveyed to us in a covenant, whereof Christ is the Mediator and Surety, and with Christ he giveth us all things, Romans 8: 32. We are blessed in Him with all spiritual blessings, according as he hath chosen us in him before the foundation of the world, Ephesians 1: 3, 4. So we are predestinate unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ, Ephesians 1: 5, and adoption is not had without faith, John 1: 12. Can we have actual redemption in Christís blood, Ephesians 1: 7, Colossians 1: 14, even forgiveness of sins, and not also have faith in his blood, without which there is no actual redemption, or forgiveness of sins to be had? When Christ gave himself for us, that he might purify unto himself a peculiar people zealous of good works, Titus 2: 14, did he not purchase faith, without which we cannot be such? When the renewing of the Holy Ghost is shed on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ, Titus 3: 5, 6, have we not faith also through him? May we not pray for faith; and can we pray for anything, and not in Christís name? See II Timothy 1: 9, I Peter 1: 3, Romans 8: 32, 39, Luke 22: 32.
††††††††† Again (13.) all that Christ died for, must certainly be saved, but all men shall not be saved. That all, for whom Christ died, must certainly
be saved, is hence apparent. (1.) That all, who have saving faith and repentance, shall be saved, will not be denied; and that Christ hath purchased faith and repentance to all, for whom he died, we have shown above. (2.) These who shall freely get all things from God, must get salvation; for all things else signify nothing without that; but all they, for whom Christ was delivered, shall get all things, Romans 8: 32. (3.) They whom nothing shall separate from the love of Christ, and from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord, must certainly be saved: But all they, for whom Christ hath died, will in due time have ground to say this, Romans 8: 34, 35, 39. (4.) All they, to whose charge nothing can be laid, shall be saved: But this will be true of all that Christ died for; for Christís death is held forth as the ground of this, Romans 8: 33, 34. (5.) They, for whom Christ intercedes, shall undoubtedly be saved: But Christ intercedes for all, for whom he died, Romans 8: 34. (6.) All who are sanctified shall be saved: But all that Christ died for, shall in due time be sanctified; Sanctification being, as we showed above, one principal intended end of Christís death. (7.) All Christís elected sheep shall be saved: But such are they, for whom Christ died, as was shown. (8.) All that God and Christ love with the greatest love imaginable, shall certainly be saved: But such are they, for whom Christ died, John 3: 16 and 15: 13, Acts 20: 28, Ephesians 5: 25. (9.) All that become the righteousness of God in Christ shall be saved. But that shall be true of all, for whom he died, or was made sin, or a sacrifice for sin, II Corinthians 5: 21. (10.) All that shall be blessed in having their sins pardoned, shall be saved, Romans 4: 6, 7, 8. But all for whom Christ died shall have this redemption, Ephesians 1: 7, Colossians 1: 14. (11.) All they, whom Christ knows and acknowledges, shall be saved, Matthew 7: 23. But he knows all them for his sheep, John 10: 14, 17, for whom he died. (12.) all for whom Christ rose again, shall be saved, seeing he rose for our justification, Romans 4: 25. But he rose again for all those, for whom he died, Romans 4: 25, who was delivered for our offences, and was raised again for our justification, Romans 8: 34. (13.) All who shall be planted together with Christ, in the likeness of his resurrection, shall be saved: But that is true of such as he died for, Romans 6: 5. (14.) All they in whom the old man shall be crucified, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that hence forth they should not serve sin, shall be saved: But that is true of such as he died for, Romans 6: 6, 7, 8, knowing this, that our old man is crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that henceforth we should not serve sin: for he that is dead is freed from sin. Now if we be dead with Christ, we believe, that we shall also live with him, &c. (15.) All they who shall be made Kings and Priests unto God, shall be saved. But all the redeemed shall be such, Revelation 1: 5, 6 and 5: 10. See worthy Mr. Durham on the Revelation p. 303. (16.) If Christ must see the travail of his soul, then these he died for must be saved: But the former is true, Isaiah 53: 11. (17.) All whom Christ shall justify shall be saved. But he shall justify all, whose iniquities he bears, Isaiah 53: 11. Thus is this sufficiently proved.
††††††††† It is also considerable (14.) that no where in Scripture, do we find it expressly said and affirmed, that Christ died for all men; Far less do we find it said
that Christ died for all and every man. Why then is all this trouble made? But they say, as much as all that is said by consequence. And this we deny: If they will rationally press this matter, they should evince, that such expressions, as they make so much work about, cannot be otherwise understood, than they suppose, in the places, where they stand: and this they shall never be able to do. Though it be said, that Christ gave his life a ransom for all; yet no reason can evince, that that is necessarily to be understood of all and every man: so nor can they conclude anything rationally from the word world. They may as well infer from these words all, and the world, that Christ died for devils, beasts, and senseless creatures, as that he died for all and every man; for they are comprehended under these terms, as well as men: And if they will restrict these terms to men, because of other Scriptures; why may not we restrict them also to the elect, because of the correspondence of other passages of Scripture? They cannot deny us the liberty, they take to themselves. If they say, that there is a vast difference betwixt devils and men, in reference to such favors, we deny it not: but shall add, that in reference to spiritual favors, amongst which we cannot but reckon, with the good leave of our adversaries, the death of Christ, being the fruit and expression of the greatest love of God to man, we find also a great difference in Scripture. Some are loved, some hated, Romans 9: 11, 12. Some whom he knows, some whom he knows not, John 10: 14 and 13: 18. Matthew 7: 23, II Timothy 2: 19. Some chosen and ordained to life, others not, but to wrath, Acts 13: 48, Romans 8: 30 and 9: 18, &c. Ephesians 1: 4, I Thessalonians 5: 9. Some sheep, others goats, Matthew 25: 32. Some on whom God hath mercy, others whom he hardens, Romans 9. Some his Church, others not, Acts 20: 28, Ephesians 5: 25. Some of the world, others not, John 17: 9, 10. Some his brethren, others not, Hebrews 2: 10, 12, 13. And as plainly we read, that Christ died for his people, Matthew 1: 21, his sheep, John 10: 11, 12, 14, his Church, Acts 20: 28, Ephesians 5: 25, his elect, Romans 8: 32, 34, and his children, Hebrews 2: 12, 13.
††††††††† If we would consider aright (15.) what Christ did undergo and suffer, while he was made sin, or was making satisfaction for sin; we should hardly think it probable, that Christ Jesus, God-Man, who was the brightness of the Fatherís glory, and the express image of his person, Hebrews 1: 3, and thought it no robbery to be counted equal with God, Philippians 2: 6, should have undergone what he did undergo, and that the Father should have laid all that upon him, which he did lay upon him, and that to purchase only a mere possible redemption from sin and wrath, whereby not one person should be saved or pardoned, if so it had seemed good to captain Free-Will. Not to mention his condescending to be born of a woman, and to be made under the law, Galatians 4: 4, nor his being in the form of a servant, Philippians 2: 7, nor his poverty and mean condition in the world, II Corinthians 8: 9, nor his conflicting with the indignities of the world, Psalm 22: 6, Hebrews 12: 2, 3, with the temptations of Satan, Matthew 4: 1 Ė 12, Luke 4: 15, and his being under the infirmities, common to the nature of man, being in all things like us, except sin, Hebrews 2: 17 and 4: 15, Isaiah 52: 13, 14. Nay, nor his sufferings in his body, name, honor at death,
when he was betrayed by Judas, Matthew 27: 4; forsaken by his disciples, Matthew 26: 56; scorned and reviled by the world Isaiah 53: 2, 3; Condemned as a malefactor by Pilate, and tormented by his persecutors óMatthew 27: 26 Ė 50, John 19: 34, and endured the painful, shameful and cursed death of the cross óPhilippians 2: 8, Hebrews 12: 2, all which and the like being endured by him, who was the Son of God, could be no mean suffering, nor undergone for an uncertain end, or for the procuring of a mere possible and uncertain good: But that which we would most take notice of here, is, his soul sufferings, being pursued by divine justice, when Zachariah 13: 7 was accomplished, awake, O sword, against my shepherd, against the man, that is my fellow, saith the Lord of hosts, smite the shepherd and the sheep shall be scattered, Matthew 26: 31. And the Lord did bruise, and put him to grief, Isaiah 53: 5, 10, and he began to be sorrowful even unto death, Matthew 26: 37, 38, and was sore amazed and very heavy, Mark 14: 34, and was put to offer up prayers and supplications, with strong cries and tears to him, that was able to save him, Hebrews 5: 7, when, notwithstanding that an angel appeared unto him from heaven, strengthening him, yet being in an agony, he prayed more earnestly, and his sweat was, as it were, great drops of blood falling down to the ground, Luke 22: 43, 44, and at length was made to cry out, my God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me, Psalm 22: 1, Matthew 27: 46, Mark 15: 34. This was no mean business, when the rays and irradiations of divine love were drawn-in and withheld from him, who had such a sharp sense of the happiness in the enjoying of Godís favor, because of the personal union with the Godhead. But that which is most of all to be considered, is his being made a curse, Galatians 3: 13, and so made to wrestle with the justice and wrath of a sin venging God. This was the gall and the worm-wood, that made him cry, John 12: 27, Now is my soul troubled, and what shall I say? Father save me from this hourÖ Shall we suppose, that all this was about an uncertain bargain? Shall we think, that he died the cursed death of the cross, and bore the weight of Godís wrath, Luke 22: 41, Matthew 27: 46, and so became a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice, Hebrews 9: 14, 18, and all to purchase a mere possibility; or a mere possible redemption? Shall we think, that the second person of the Trinity should do and suffer all these things, to redeem man, when possibly, if Freewill should be so ill natured, not one man should reap any advantage thereby? Me thinks, the asserting of this should be a great temptation to cause people to turn Socinian, and deny all these soul sufferings of Christ, and his bearing the wrath of God, and making any satisfaction to justice.
††††††††† Add to this (16.) that the Scriptures speak of Christís death and sufferings, as being not for himself, but for others; and that not only for the good and advantage of others (and doubtless the advantage of all this should be but little, if it were nothing else, but a mere possible redemption, which Freewill might make actual, or not actual, as it pleased) but in their room and place: hence it is called the chastisement of our peace, Isaiah 53: 5, and he is said to have born our grief, and carried our sorrows, verse 4, He was wounded for our transgressions; and bruised for our iniquities, verse 5. The Lord laid on him the iniquity of us all, verse 6, Öfor the transgression of my people was he stricken,
verse 8 Öfor he shall bear their iniquities, verse 11, Öhe bear the sin of many, verse 12, He bear our sins, in his body, on the tree, I Peter 2: 24, the just suffered for the unjust, I Peter 3: 18. Hence believers are said to be crucified with him, Galatians 2: 20, to be baptized into his death, Romans 6: 3, buried with him by baptism into death, verse 4, planted together in the likeness of his death, verse 5, dead with Christ, verse 8, He was cut off, but not for himself, Daniel 9: 26. See also Hebrews 2: 9, I Peter 2: 21. Shall we say, that this was merely for our good, seeing it was, in some respect for the good of the whole creation, Romans 8: 20 Ė 23, Acts 3: 21, and not in our place and stead? Paul says, II Corinthians 5: 14, If one be dead then were all dead. And it is manifest, that he paid the law-debt, having taken on him the seed of Abraham, for this end, Hebrews 2: 16, and being made a curse for us, he redeemed us from the curse of the law, Galatians 3: 10. So that it was in our stead, Romans 5: 6, 7, 8, John 11: 50 and 10: 11, 15. And the preposition a2nti hath clearly this import, Matthew 5: 38 and 17: 27, Isaiah 41: 4, Exodus 21: 23, 24, I Chronicles 14: 1, I Kings 3: 7, II Kings 1: 17 and 11: 43, Proverbs 11: 8, Job 16: 4 and 34: 17, I Peter 3: 9, Romans 12: 17. See many other places cited by worthy Mr. Rutherford in his book of the Covenant page 254, 255, where both in the N.T. and in the LXX version of the old a2nti hath this import. And this truth is abundantly made out by our Orthodox Divines, writing against the Socinians; so that I need say no more of it; only I think, such as assert the redemption purchased by Christ to have been a mere general possible redemption, do strengthen the hands of the Socinians; and join with them against the Orthodox: But to our purpose, such as Christ did thus die for, and in their room and place, are accounted to have died in him, and so freed: as in Ter. Pro illo te ducam. Ego pro te molam.
††††††††† Moreover (17.) if we consider the furniture, which Christ as Mediator had given to him of the Father, we shall see more of the unreasonableness of this opinion, which the Arminians embrace: Not to speak of what he had as God, the Fatherís fellow and equal, let us but take notice of that communicated furniture, which he had as Mediator between God and man, I Timothy 2: 5, and our Emanuel, Isaiah 7: 14. We see he is called Wonderful Counselor, &c. Isaiah 9: 6, 7. He is that Candlestick, whence the golden pipes do empty the golden oil, Zechariah 4: 12. He was full of grace and truth, John 1: 14. Was this fullness for a mere possible effect? Or had he it so, and for such an end, as none might possibly be the better thereof? No; and of his fullness have all we received grace for grace, John 1: 16. He had not the Spirit by measure, John 3: 34. It pleased the Father, that in him should all fullness dwell, Colossians 1: 9. In him are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge, Colossians 2: 3, and in him dwelleth all the fullness of the godhead bodily, verse 9. And wherefore is all this? Even that all his might be complete in him, verse 10. Grace was poured into his lips, Psalm 45: 2, and he was anointed with the oil of gladness above his fellows, verse 7. And Isaiah 61: 1, Luke 4: 18, &c. The Spirit of the Lord was upon him, because the Lord had anointed him. And for what end? To preach glad tidings unto the meek, to bind up the broken hearted, to proclaim liberty to the captives, and the opening of the prison to them that are bound. See further verses 2 and 3. Surely, this was no uncertain end, nor left to the discretion of Freewill.
So Isaiah 11: 2, And the Spirit of the Lord shall rest upon him, the Spirit of wisdom and understanding, &c. Shall all this be, and further shall Righteousness be the girdle of his loins, and faithfulness the girdle of his reins, verse 5. And may it notwithstanding so come to pass, that the wolf shall not dwell with the lamb, nor the leopard lie down with the kid, &c. nor the earth be full of the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the sea? Verses 6 Ė 9. How absurd is it to imagine this? All this furniture says, that it was no uncertain general end, which he had before his eyes, in undertaking this works; and the Father in sending him, and granting to him this fullness.
††††††††† Add to this (18.) the Titles and relations, which Christ took upon him: for they cannot be mere insignificant and empty names. He is called a Redeemer, Isaiah 41: 14; 54: 5; 49: 26; 60: 16; 43: 14; 44: 6, 24; 48: 17; 49: 7; 47: 4; 59: 20; Romans 11: 26. And shall we imagine, that He shall be a Redeemer and Deliverer, and yet no man be redeemed or delivered? No! He hath redeemed a company, whom he owns as such, Isaiah 35: 9; 43: 1, 23; 44: 22; 48: 20; Jeremiah 31: 11; Isaiah 51: 11; 52: 3; 63: 4; Zachariah 10: 8; Luke 1: 68; 24: 21; I Peter 1: 18; Revelation 5: 9; 14: 3. He is called a Savior, Isaiah 43: 3, 11; 45: 15, 21; 63: 8, Luke 1: 47; 2: 11; John 4: 42; Acts 5: 31; 13: 23; II Timothy 1: 10; Titus 1: 4; Ephesians 5: 23; Titus 2: 13; 3: 6; II Peter 1: 1, 11; 2: 20, 3: 2, 18; I John 4: 14. Shall we think, that he, was given and sent for a Savior, and took upon himself that Title and relation, and notwithstanding no man might be saved? No, there are also some designed, the Saved, II Corinthians 2: 15, Acts 2: 4, I Corinthians 1: 18. He is called a King, Revelation 15: 3; 17: 14; 19: 16; I Timothy 6: 15; John 12: 15; Luke 19: 38; 23: 2; Zachariah 9: 9; Matthew 21: 5. Now is he an actual King, and shall he have none but potential subjects? Shall he be a King without a Kingdom? See John 18: 36; Colossians 1: 13; I Corinthians 15: 24. He is called a Husband, II Corinthians 11: 2; Jeremiah 31: 32. And therefore he must have a Wife and Bride, John 3: 29; Revelation 18: 23; 21: 9; 22: 17. He is called a Head, Ephesians 5: 23; I Corinthians 11: 3; Ephesians 4: 15; 1: 22; Colossians 1: 18. And so must have a body, Ephesians 1: 23; Romans 12: 5; Ephesians 4: 4; Colossians 3: 15; 1: 24; 2: 19; Ephesians 4: 16; 5: 23; 3: 6. He is called the Vine Stock, and shall he have no branches? John 15: 1, 2, &c. These things might be further enlarged and pressed; but we shall haste forward.
††††††††† (19.) Our adversaries say, that Christ by his death and passion did absolutely, even according to the intention of God, purchase remission of sins and reconciliation with God, and that for all and every man: Others say conditionally: but withal as to the application of this purchase, it is made to depend upon faith. And so they distinguish betwixt Impetration and Application. And though it is true, the purchase made is one thing, and the actual enjoyment of the thing purchased is another thing; yet we may not say, with our adversaries, that the impetration is for more, than shall have the application. But we assert, that both impetration and application, in respect of the design of the Father, which is absolute and certain, and the intention of Christ the Mediator, which is fixed and peremptory, are for the same individual persons; so that for whomsoever God sent Christ, and Christ
came to purchase any good, unto these same shall it actually, in due time, and in the method and manner condescended upon and prescribed, be given; and upon them, and none else, shall it actually be bestowed: for (1.) No other thing, beside this application, can be supposed to have been the end of the impetration; And surely, Christ was herein a rational agent. Nay, it was the intention and design of the Father, that the application of these good things should be by means of this impetration, as is abundantly cleared above. (2.) We cannot suppose that either Christ, or his Father, should fail, or come short of their end designed; but by our adversaries, the impetration might have been obtained, and yet no application made of the good things impetrated and obtained. (3.) If no application was intended by the Father or by Christ, then it must be said, that both were uncertain, as to what the event should have been, or at least regardless and unconcerned; either of which to affirm were blasphemy. (4.) The very word impetrate, having the same force and import with Purchase, Procure, Obtain, Merit, and the like, doth say, that such, for whom this impetration was made, have a right, upon the impetration, to the thing acquired and purchased: And if they have a right thereto, that possession should follow. (5.) Yea the word imports, the actual conferring of the good, to be the very end of the purchasing and impetrating; and so, in this case, the very impetration is ground of assurance of the application, considering, who did impetrate, and at whose hands, and withal, what was the ground of the Father sending Christ, and of Christ coming to impetrate, even inconceivably wonderful and great love. Nor doth the intervening of a condition, required before the actual collation of some of the good things purchased, hinder at all; for all these blessings, some whereof are as a condition to others, are the one good thing impetrated, and the very conditions are also impetrated, as we declared above: and so this points forth only the method of the actual bestowing of these good things purchased. (6.) How absurd is it to say, a thing is impetrated or obtained, and yet may, or may not be bestowed; may be possessed, or not possessed? Or to say, that such a good thing is obtained by price or petitioning, and yet the same good thing, may never be bestowed, or the bestowing of it hangs and depends upon an uncertain condition, which may never be performed? (7.) How unreasonable is it, that such should have right to the merits, that have no right to the thing merited? Doth not an interest in the merits, procuring anything, include an interest in the thing merited? When a ransom is paid for captives, to the end they may be delivered, have not these captives a right to the deliverance, upon the payment of that ransom? (8.) The Scriptures do so connect these two, that it argues contempt thereof, to imagine such a separation: as Romans 4: 25. Yea the one is assigned as a certain effect and consequent flowing from the other, as its moral cause, Isaiah 53: 11. By his knowledge shall my righteous servant justify many, this justification is the application; and whence comes it? For he shall bear their iniquities, there is the impetration given as the ground hereof. So further in verse 5, he was wounded for our transgressions, &c. and what follows upon this impetration? And by his stripes are we healed. So in Romans 5: 18
By the righteousness of the one the free gift came upon all men to justification. So that the application reaches an all, that is, all who have interest in the righteousness, which is the thing impetrated. See also Hebrews 10: 10. (9.) If Christís intercession be for the same persons, for whom he died, then the application is to the same; for this intercession of Christ is in order to the application: But that Christís intercession is for the same persons, for whom he died, we shall se hereafter. (10.) If all things be ensured to such, for whom Christ died, then certainly this application cannot fail, but the former is true. Romans 8: 32, He that spared not his own Son, but delivered him up for us all, how shall he not (mark this manner of expression which imports the greatest of absurdities to think otherwise) with him also freely give us all things? (11.) And in that same place, verses 33, 34, Christís death is given as the certain ground of justification and salvation, so that such, as he died for, shall certainly, in due time, and after the method prescribed, be justified and saved. Otherwise, there were no sure ground in the Apostleís arguing. For if all the ground of this certainty, as to application, were from their faith, or fulfilling of the condition, the Apostle would have mentioned this, as the main ground, and not have led them to a ground common to others, who never should partake of the application. (12.) This matter is abundantly confirmed from what we said above, concerning Christís purchasing of faith, and dying for our sanctification, and to bring us to God, &c. so that more need not be added here.
††††††††† (20.) For further confirmation of this, and because our adversaries think to slave the forementioned separation of impetration and application, by telling us, that where good things are absolutely purchased, then application must follow; but not where good things are purchased only conditionally, as in our case: we shall show therefore, how this will not hold, nor advantage their cause: for (1.) If all be redeemed conditionally, that condition, whatever it be, must in equity be revealed to all. (2.) Either God and Christ knew, who would perform this condition, or not. If not, then they were not omniscient. If they did know, then surely, this death was more particularly and designedly intended for them, than for the rest: and upon what account, and to what end, should Christ lay down his life a ransom for such, as he knew certainly should never be the better thereof? And why would the Father send him to die for such? (3.) This condition is either in manís sole power, without the help of the grace of God, to perform, or not. If it be in manís power, from what scripture shall this Pelagianism be confirmed? How then shall the new Covenant of Grace be distinguished in specie from the Covenant of Works, made with Adam? If this condition be not in manís power, but the grace of God must work it, then either God will work it in all, or not. If not, why would God purchase good things to people upon a condition, which they could not perform, and which he alone could work in them, and resolved not to work in them? If he will work it in all, then all shall certainly be saved. Again, if this condition be the free gift of God, then either God will give it absolutely to all; and so all shall certainly be saved: or absolutely to some, and then none but they shall be
saved, and why should Christ die for the rest? Or conditionally to all: and if so, the doubt will recur concerning that condition, which either must be absolutely given, and so we are where we are, or conditionally, and so still the doubt recurs. (4.) This condition is either purchased by Christ, or it is not. If not, then we owe no thanks to Christ for it, nor for what is obtained upon that condition, more than others who perform not the condition, and so obtain nothing: but to ourselves only, who make ourselves to differ; and so may we sing praises to ourselves, and put the crown upon our own heads, and give no song of praise to the Redeemer, but what such as go to hell are bound to give, contrary to all Christian Religion. If Christ hath purchased this condition, then it is either absolutely, or conditionally. If absolutely, then all shall absolutely have it: if conditionally, we enquire, what is the condition? And whatever it be, we may move the same questions concerning it. (5.) By this means the act should create its own object; for faith in the death of Christ is ordinarily given as the condition, and this faith makes the death of Christ valid, which otherwise would not be. (6.) This makes all the virtue of Christís death to depend upon manís act; so that if man will, all shall be saved; if not, no man shall be saved, notwithstanding that Christ died for them. (7.) This makes Christ but, at most, a half Mediator, doing one part of the work; and man, coming in to complete it, must be the other half Mediator; and so, at least, must have the half of the praise. (8.) Where saith the Scripture, that if we believe, Christ died for us, or that Christ died for all, or for any conditionally? It is true, some of the effects of Christís death are bestowed conditionally, (taking the word conditionally not properly, as if the performance of that condition, did in proper Law sense procure a right to these mercies; for through the merits of Christís blood have we a right properly to all; but improperly as denoting nothing but the method and way of God bestowing the blessings purchased, first this, and then, upon the soul acting that, another; as for example, first faith, then upon the soul acting of faith, justification, then sanctification, &c. and upon the soul acting sanctification, glorification) but the death of Christ cannot therefore be called conditional, more than the will or purpose of God can be called conditional, because some of the things willed, may depend upon other as a condition. (9.) Then by performing the condition, man should procure to himself a legal right, and title not only to the death of Christ, but to justification, adoption, sanctification, yea and to glorification; yea and that a more near and effectual title and right, than what was had by Christís death; for the title had by Christís death (if it can be called a title) was common to such as shall never have any profit by it; but the other is certain, particular, proxime and gives possession, jus in re. (10.) Then Christís blood, as shed upon the cross, was but a potential thing, having no power or virtue in itself to redeem any. It was but a poor potential price: and all its virtue of actual purchasing and procuring is from man performing the condition; this, and this only, gives it power and efficacy: and so Christ is beholden to man for giving virtue
unto his blood, and making it effectual, which before was a dead, ineffectual thing. Then let any judge, who should have the greatest share of the glory of redemption, Man or Christ. (11.) Was Christís death absolute in no respect; or was it, as to some things, I mean, belonging to grace and glory, absolute? If in nothing, then man must certainly have a great share of the glory. If it was absolute as to anything, what was that, and why was it more absolute as to that, than as to other things? And why should it then be simply, and without limitation, said that Christ died for all conditionally?
††††††† For further confirmation of our 19th argument, and confutation of our adversaries, we add (21.) that Christ Jesus is heard of the Father in all that he asks, Psalm 2: 8; John 11: 41, 42, and as a High Priest he entered into heaven, Hebrews 9: 11, 12, now to appear in the presence of God for us, verse 24, to prepare a place John 14: 2, and to act the part of an Advocate, interceding with the Father, in behalf of all such, for whom he died, I John 2: 1, 2. If then Christ, whom his Father always hears, intercedes on behalf of all these, for whom he died, either he did not die for all, or all must certainly be saved. That Christís intercession, and death are for the same persons, will be, and must be denied by our adversaries: But to us it is most manifest from these grounds. (1.) To intercede and pray are as essential and necessary acts of the priestly office, as to offer sacrifice: and the Apostle, Hebrews 9, clears up, how Christ did in truth, what the High Priest among the Jew did in the type; for as the High Priest alone went, once every year, into the second tabernacle, or holy of holies, not without blood, which he offered for himself, and the errors of the people, verse 7, So Christ being come an High Priest of good things to come, by a greater and more perfect tabernacle, by his own blood, he entered in once into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption, verse 12. Hence he is said to live forever to make intercession for us, Hebrews 7: 25, and he is an advocate with the Father, I John 2: 1. Hence then it is manifest, that Christ must intercede for such, as he did offer up himself for, or he shall not be a perfect and complete High Priest; or not faithful to perform all the offices of the High Priest: neither of which can be said. (2.) The ground of his intercession, is held forth to be his oblation: as the High Priest went into the holy of holies with the blood of the sacrifices, which he had offered; so Christ entered into the holy place, having first obtained by the sacrifice of himself an eternal redemption, Hebrews 9: 12. So he is an Advocate with the Father, being first a propitiation for sins, I John 2: 1, 2. (3.) Both his death and intercession make up one complete medium, and are intended and designed, as one medium, for the end designed, viz. the bringing of many sons unto glory, saving to the uttermost all that come to God through him &c. (4.) How unreasonable is it to think, that Christ would refuse to pray for such, whom he loved so dearly, as to lay down his life for? Yet he says expressly, that he prayed not for the world, †but for others, distinguished from the world, John 17: 9. (5.) As his death was for such as the Father had given him (as we saw above) so his intercession and prayer is restricted to such, John 17: 9 ĖI pray not for the world; but for them which thou hast
given me, for they are thine. (6.) Christís end in coming into the world, was to save his people; hence he got that name Jesus; but he should not be able to save them, perfectly, completely, and to the uttermost, if he did not join his intercession with his oblation. Yea upon this account he continues ever a Priest, having an unchangeable Priesthood, Hebrews 2: 24, 25. But this man, because he continueth ever, hath an unchangeable Priesthood, wherefore he is able to save them to the uttermost, that come unto God by him, seeing he ever liveth to make intercession for them. (7.) The Apostle so joins them together, Romans 8: 34, that they must do manifest violence to the Apostleís reasoning, who would pull them asunder, and separate the one from the other. It is (says he) Christ that died, yea rather that is risen again, who is even at the right hand of God, who also makes intercession for us. (8.) Yea, they are so joined together here, that his death alone considered could not yield that ground of triumph and boasting, nor security from accusations: Yea rather, that is risen again, &c. (9.) So that the separating and taking of these asunder, is greatly prejudicial to the consolation of his people; for though they should attain to some apprehensions of Christ dying for them, as an Advocate with the Father, upon new sins, I John 2: 1, 2. Though Christ died, yet they might be condemned, for he must also intercede; and if he does not intercede for them, their hopes and comforts are gone. And so there should be no force in that, who is he that condemneth, it is Christ that died? Romans 8: 34. And a poor soul might be half saved, but not to the uttermost, contrary to Hebrews 2: 25. (10.) And that place Romans 8: 33 restricts both equally unto the elect: who shall lay anything to the charge of Godís elect? (11.) When Christ laid down his life a ransom for sinners, he could not but know, that by that ransom none should be actually saved, without his intercession, it being accorded betwixt Father and Son, that the Mediator should mediate both by price and by prayer: And he could not but know, for whom he purposed and intended to intercede. How shall we then suppose, that he would lay down his life for those, for whom he was purposed not to pray? Or that he would do the most for them, for whom he would not do the least? (12.) Christís intercession is really a presenting unto God the oblation made: Therefore the Apostle says, Hebrews 9: 24, that Christ is entered into heaven itself, to appear in the presence of God for us: And so by appearing he intercedes: and his appearing is in his own blood, whereby he obtained eternal redemption, Hebrews 9: 12, and so his intercession must be for all, for whom the oblation was, and the eternal redemption was obtained. (13.) Yea both these are so joined together by Isaiah, chapter 53: 12, as that they are made one ground, and procuring cause of God dividing him a portion with the great, and of Christís own dividing the spoil with the strong; Because he hath poured out his soul unto death, and he bare the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors. (14.) †This is further clear from the reasons, we gave to confirm that fast connection betwixt Christís impetration and application, in the foregoing paragraph, for the actual application of the benefit and fruit of his oblation is attributed to his intercession. (15.) Nay, that whole 17th chapter of John confirms this. For there Christ is both offering himself, or sanctifying himself thereunto, verses 9 and
19, and interceding, and these are so linked together, both in themselves, and as to the persons for whom, that it must argue, at least, much incogitancy, to imagine a divulsion, †and separation of these two acts of his priesthood. (16.) If Christ intercede not for the same persons, for whom he died, we ask for whom he intercedes? Is it for actual believers? Then we ask a Scripture ground for this restriction. And then it is manifest hence, that Christ intercedes not for the working of faith in any: And yet Isaiah tells us, that he maketh intercession for transgressors. And we see in John 17: 20, that he prays not only for those, who were already believers, but for such also as were not yet believers. He told us himself also, that he would pray the Father for the Spirit, John 14: 16. And among other things, this is one work of the Spirit, to cause a sinner to believe, II Corinthians 4: 13, Ephesians 1: 17, 18, 19.
††††††††† The point we are upon will further clear, if we consider (22.) that Christís death was a redemption, and we are said to be redeemed thereby, Galatians 4: 5; 3: 13; Romans 3: 24, Ephesians 1: 7; Colossians 1: 14; I Peter 1: 8; Revelation 5: 9; Titus 2: 14. And therefore, all such, as he laid down this redemption, or redemption money for, must of necessity be redeemed and saved, and consequently he died not for all, seeing all are not redeemed and saved. His ransom, or price of redemption, which he laid down, viz. his blood, which he shed, is called lu/tron a ransom, Matthew 20: 28, and a0nti/ lutron I Timothy 2: 6. That all such, for whom this redemption money was paid, and this ransom given, must be saved, is clear; for (1.) Otherwise it were no redemption. A ransom given for captives doth say, that these captives, in law and justice, ought to be set at liberty. (2.) This redemption is the same with, (as to the effect,) or hath attending it, forgiveness of sins. Colossians 1: 14, Ephesians 1: 7. and forgiveness of sins, is with justification, and hath blessedness attending it, Romans 4: 6, 7, 8. (3.) Salvation necessarily follows upon this ransom and redemption, as is clear from I Timothy 2: 4 compared with verse 6. (4.) This redemption is from a vain conversation, I Peter 1: 18, and consequently is attended with salvation. (5.) It is attended with justification, Romans 3: 24, being justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Jesus Christ. (6.) Hence it is called the redemption of the transgressions, Hebrews 9: 15, that is, either of transgressors, by a metonymy, or of us from the evil of transgressions, and that upon a valuable compensation and satisfaction; for a0polu/trwsij is a redemption from evil by the intervening of a price, a lu/tron, a ransom. (7.) This was a redemption from the Law, for God sent forth his Son Ö made under the law, to redeem them, who were under the Law, Galatians 4: 4, 5. And so, by this redemption, there is a liberation had from the law, and its curse and penalty. (8.) And it is a redemption of such as were under the Law, for this end, that they might receive the adoption of sons, Galatians 4: 5. But this adoption of sons is not common to all. (9.) All which receives confirmation from this, that the Father, who received this ransom, did himself send his Son to lay it down, and so it was his own ransom; and therefore must have been paid, upon a certain design of actually redeeming and delivering from sin, Satan, death and hell, those, for whom it was laid down. (10.) So is there another end
of this redemption mentioned in Galatians 3: 13, 14. Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law Ö that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentiles through Jesus Christ. (11.) Seeing the Lord Jehovah might have refused to free the sinner upon any redemption or satisfaction offered, and exacted all of the sinners themselves, that they lay under by the law, it was a great condescendence in love of this great Lord, and a gracious act of sovereignty, to accept of a mediation; and of love and free grace to provide a Redeemer; we cannot but in reason think, that his good pleasure did regulate this matter, as to the persons, who should be redeemed, and as to the manner and method after which they should actually partake of the redemption. And that therefore, the persons to be redeemed were condescended upon, and the persons condescended upon were certainly to be redeemed; the Lord having intended, in the contrivance of this redemption, the certain salvation and redemption of those, who were condescended upon, and of none else, and the intentions, designs and purposes of God are not vain nor frustrable.
††††††††† Further (23.) Christís death had a real merit in it, that is, a worth and value, to procure the good things, it was given for; so that thereby there was a purchase made, Acts 20: 28. And therefore, we cannot suppose, that all that was procured and purchased hereby, was a general, uncertain, and merely possible thing. If it had a value and worth in it, (as no question it had) to purchase and procure grace and glory, unto all, for whom it was given, and was accepted as a valuable price of the Father, why should not the thing, hereby purchased, be given and granted, in due time? To say, that all was suspended upon a condition, is to make all uncertain: or we must say, that Christís death did procure that condition also: and then all is right, for that is what we say.
††††††††† (24.) Christís death is to be considered as the death of a Testator, Hebrews 9: 15, 16, 17. And for this cause, he is the Mediator of the New Testament, that by means of death, for the redemption of transgressions, that were under the first Testament, they which are called, might receive the promise of eternal inheritance: for where a Testament is, there must also of necessity be the death of the Testator: for a Testament is of force after men are dead, otherwise it is of no strength, at all, while the Testator liveth. So he said himself of the cup, in the sacrament, that it was the blood of the New Testament, Matthew 26: 28; Mark 14: 24, and that it was the cup of the New Testament in his blood, Luke 22: 20, and Paul calls it, the New Testament in his blood, I Corinthians 11: 25. So that his death and bloodshed was the death of a Testator, for the confirmation of the New Testament, and for ascertaining of the Legatees, of the good things bequeathed to them in legacy, by the Testament. Now a Testament commonly is a declaration of the Testatorís free, absolute and voluntary purpose of bestowing such and such benefits, to such and such friends; and so it is the Testatorís letter will, whereby he wills that this legacy be given to this person, and that to another. It is true, men may insert some conditions, as to some legacies, because they are but men, and know not contingent future things, nor have they the wills and dispositions of such, they appoint legatees, in their own hand and
power; But it is otherwise with our Testator: and therefore we cannot think, that He left the legacies in his Testament, at the uncertainty of conditions, to be performed by men; especially considering, how as he died to ratify the testament, so he rose again to administrate the same, as the sole executor thereof by His Spirit, and that what legacies he left to be bestowed, upon such and such conditions he left not the matter at an uncertainty; for the condition itself was bequeathed, as the necessary good of the Testament, without which all would have been to no purpose. It is unreasonable then to think, that Christ died to give force to his Testament; and yet it might come to pass, that he should have no heir, to enjoy the goods left in legacy. Nor is it reasonable to think, that all the world were equally his heirs, seeing the inheritance, and Kingdom is for the little flock, Luke 12: 32, and a peculiar select number, I Peter 1: 4; John 17: 24; Colossians 1: 12, who are heirs of the promises, of God, of salvation, of the grace of God, of the Kingdom, &c. Romans 8: 17; Galatians 3: 29; 4: 7, 30; Ephesians 3: 6; Hebrews 1: 14; 6: 1; 11: 7; James 2: 5; I Peter 3: 7. Therefore, all whom Christ hath appointed heirs in his Testament, shall certainly enjoy the good things tested, in due time, for his death gave force to his Testament, as being his last and unchangeable will, so that they cannot miss of the inheritance, and be disappointed, especially considering, that Christ by his death laid down a valuable and rich price to purchase all these good things, which he left in legacy to his friends and heirs.
††††††††† Christís death moreover (25.) is to be considered, as the death of a Sponsor and Cautioner, and this will further confirm our point. Hence he is called a Surety, Hebrews 7: 22, and is said to die for the ungodly, Romans 5: 6, to be made a curse for us, Galatians 3: 13, and to be made sin, II Corinthians 5: 21, and other expressions of the like kind have the same import: From whence it is evident, that Christ took the debt upon himself, that was justly to be charged upon the account of sinners, that he became one person in Law, with sinners the principal debtor; that he paid and satisfied for all the debt, and that in their room and place: and that therefore all these, for whom he died, must certainly be delivered from the debt, and from the charge and consequences thereof. These things are manifest of themselves, and need no further confirmation. Now seeing all are not delivered from the debt of sin, nor from the punishment due because of sin, we cannot say, that Christ died, as a Cautioner, for all; for surely his death was a complete payment of all the debt he undertook to pay, and to satisfy for. Nor can we say, that he died as a Cautioner for he knew not whom; far less, that he died as a Cautioner, and yet none might possibly receive advantage thereby. Nor yet can we say, that he died, as a Cautioner, and paid for some sins of all, and not for all their sins, for whom he died; seeing he was a complete Cautioner. So then, as Christ died in their room and stead, as their Cautioner, and Sponsor, for whom he died, wrong should be done to him, if all these, for whom he was a Cautioner, should not at length actually be delivered out of prison, and freed from the accusation of the Law: They, for whom he died, being in him legally, when he died, and morally and virtually dying in him, and
with him, must not, in justice, be made to pay their own debt, and satisfy the law over again: Christ striking hands (as the phrase is Proverbs 22: 26) and so putting his name in the obligation, and accordingly making satisfaction, the Principalís name is blotted out, and he free in the time appointed: for he bare our griefs, and carried our sorrows, &c. Isaiah 53: 4, 5, and by means of death, he delivered them, who through fear of death were all their life time subject to bondage, Hebrews 2: 14, 15.
††††††††† This matter will further clear, if we consider (26.) how the death of Christ was a satisfaction: and none can deny this, but antichristian Socinian: Others willingly grant, that Christ did substitute himself, in the room of sinners, and was willing to undergo the punishment, threatened in the Law against sin, that the sinners, for whom he undertook satisfaction, might be freed: So he bare their sins, Isaiah 53: 11; I Peter 2: 24. And he was made sin, II Corinthians 5: 21. Hence he is called a Propitiation, I John 2: 3; 4: 10; Romans 3: 25. Whereby we see, that Christ took upon him the whole punishment, that was due to sin; and that God, whom sinners had offended, was well pleased with what he did and suffered, according to that undertaking, yea more pleased, than he was displeased with all the sins of those, for whom he suffered: for hereby his authority and justice was made to appear more glorious and excellent. How then can we think, that many of those, and it may be all, for whom he gave that satisfaction, may, notwithstanding, possibly be made to make satisfaction for themselves, as they may by the way of our adversaries? Was not his satisfaction full and complete? Why should any then, for whom he gave that satisfaction, be liable to punishment? Is this consonant to justice? Did not the Lord Jehovah send Christ and fit him with a body for this end, Psalm 40: 6; Hebrews 10: 5, and lay upon him the iniquity of us all, Isaiah 53: 6, that he might make full satisfaction for them to justice, and suffer for them all that the law could demand of them, or they were liable unto by the broken law? Did not Christ do and suffer all, which he undertook to do, and suffer for this end? And did no the Father accept of what he did and suffered, as a full compensation and satisfaction? And seeing this cannot be denied, and it is manifest that this was done by Christ as a Cautioner, Hebrews 7: 22, how can it be imagined, that the principal debtor shall not thereupon have a fundamental right to freedom and pardon, and in due time, after the Gospel method, be actually discharged, and delivered from the penalty of the law, and redeemed by the satisfactory price paid by the Cautioner, and accepted of the Creditor? Doth not the denying of this certain and infallible effect, call in question the value and worth of Christís satisfaction, and give ground to say, that Jehovah was not satisfied with the price; or that Christ made no satisfaction? Did not Christ make reconciliation for the sins of his people, Hebrews 2: 17?
††††††††† Add for a further confirmation of this (27.) that Christís death was a propitiating sacrifice. He gave himself for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God, for a sweet smelling savor, Ephesians 5: 2. He offered up himself once, Hebrews 7: 27. He is a sacrifice for us, I Corinthians 5: 7, and the lamb of God, which beareth,
or taketh away the sin of the world, John 1: 29. He offered up himself without spot to God, Hebrews 9: 14, and he was once offered to bear the sins of many, Hebrews 9: 28, we are sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all Öhe offered one sacrifice for sin forever, Hebrews 10: 10, 12. Now as the sacrifices under the Law, which were a type of this, did not procure a general, possible benefit, but did procure a real favor, only to the people of God; for they sanctified to the purifying of the flesh, Hebrews 9: 13. So certainly this real and perfect sacrifice must have a peculiar and real effect and sprinkle consciences from dead works, to serve the living God, Hebrews 9: 14. And this is not a thing common to all, nor is it a mere possible thing: They must then do a great indignity unto the sacrifice of Christ, who speak of a universal merely possible redemption.
††††††††† Add to this (28.) how upon this sacrifice, which Christ offered up, in his death, we read of a reconciliation made, Ephesians 2: 16 Ėand that he might reconcile both unto God, in one body, by the cross, having slain the enmity, by it, or in himself. Romans 5: 10 Ėwhen we were enemies we were reconciled to God, by the death of his Son. Colossians 1: 20 Ėand having made peace, through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself. Therefore he is called our Peace, Ephesians 2: 14, and he maketh peace, verse 15, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, Romans 5: 1. Now this reconciliation being of parties, that are at variance, must be a reconciliation of both to each other and so a mutual reconciliation: and Christ effectuated both: and both are purchased by his death. We cannot then imagine with Socinians, that all the reconciliation, mentioned in Scripture, is of us to God; as if Godís anger and wrath were not appeased and taken out of the way; nor with Arminians, that Christ obtained a universal reconciliation of God to all, but no reconciliation of man to God; friendship betwixt enemies must be mutual, if a reconciliation be; and our state before this was enmity, Romans 5: 10, Colossians 1: 20, 21, and Godís wrath was against us and upon us, Ephesians 2: 3; John 3: 36. But now, how will this agree with universal redemption? Is God reconciled to all, when many perish under his wrath, forever? Can God be said to be, upon the death of Christ, reconciled to all, when it may so fall out, that not one soul shall have peace with God? How comes it to pass, that many, whose reconciliation Christ hath purchased, live and die enemies to God? Surely the Apostle tells us, II Corinthians 5: 19, that to whom God is reconciled, to them he doth not impute sin: and he assures us, that all such, as are reconciled to God, by the death of his Son, shall be saved, Romans 5: 10.
††††††††† Add (29.) that it seems hard to say, that Christ laid down his life a price, a ransom, a sacrifice, an atonement and propitiation, &c. to purchase, procure, merit grace and glory, and to make reconciliation and peace betwixt God, and such, as were already suffering the vengeance of eternal fire, and to satisfy for their sins, who were already condemned to the torments of hell fire: and yet this must be said by such, as assert universal redemption. Was Christ so prodigal of his blood, as to cast it away, for such as were irrecoverably gone? If it be said, that this is no more hard, than to say, that Christ suffered for such, as were already glorified, any may see,†
how vast the difference is, for such as were glorified, were glorified upon the account of Christís death, which was to be, in the time appointed and designed by Father and Son. When one promises a sum for redeeming of so many slaves, and the sum, according to mutual agreement, is to be paid at such a day, the slaves may be presently relieved, in contemplation of the price, which is accepted, and is to be paid hereafter at the time appointed: But when one comes to lay down ransom money, he cannot be said to lay it down for such as are dead, and that he knows to be dead many years ago, and so incapable of redemption.
††††††††† Further (30.) if Christ died for all, then he intended to die for all; then the Father also intended, that he should die for all; then he intended that it should be a redemption for all, and that thereby all should be redeemed: for to what end else should Christ die and redeem, if not that such, as he died for and redeemed, be redeemed and delivered? Or to what other end should God have intended Christ should die for all, than to the ends mentioned in Scripture, of which we have spoken? And how can we say, that God did intend the redemption of all, when all are not actually redeemed? Are his intentions fallible, and frustrable? If it be said, that he intended only a possible salvation, and not actual, I answer: The Scripture speaks no such thing as we have seen. And how unsuitable is it to the wisdom of God, to send his Son, actually to die, and bear the curse, and only intend thereby a possible redemption, which might never prove actual to any one soul? If it be said, that he intended an actual redemption, but conditionally, I answer: Redemption upon a condition is but a conditional redemption, and that is but potential, possible redemption, unless you say, that the condition is also purchased: and then, as to God, it is an absolute redemption, and intended as such: doth it suit the wisdom of God; to intend redemption to all, and not intend also the condition, by which alone it must become actual, and which alone he can work, but will not? Must we thus ascribe such intentions to God, as must hang upon manís will, and be subordinate thereunto? Or if he see, that the condition will never be performed, how can we think, that he intends anything upon a condition, that shall never be? But enough of this at present.
††††††††† Moreover (31.) this doctrine of universal redemption is derogatory to the solid consolation of the redeemed, and weakens the grounds of their song; and therefore it is not to be admitted. This argument is fully and solidly prosecuted, and vindicated from what can be alleged against it, by the learned and solid Mr. Durham, in his commentary on the Revelation, pages 304 and 305. And to him shall I refer the reader: only I shall crave leave to add this: That by our adversaries grounds, the song of the saved shall not run, as it doth in Revelation 5: 9, 10. But rather thus, We have saved ourselves, out of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation, and have made ourselves unto God, Kings and Priests: For whereas Christ by his blood redeemed all of every kindred, and tongue, and people, and nation, and not some only out of them; we ourselves have, by our own free good will, made a difference betwixt ourselves, and the rest; and we are no more beholden
to Christ for all that we have attained to, than the damned in hell are, for whom Christ shed his blood, as well as for us, and to whom he purchased by his blood and death, as much, as for us; as adversaries say. So that I see not how Arminians can think to join in his song, and have any share of this consolation, which is solely founded upon the redemption of Christ, as a peculiar and no common blessing. Let them consider it, for it concerns them not a little, seeing all that come to glory will sing to the honor of their redeemer, upon other grounds, as we see, then these are, which our adversaries lay down and plead so earnestly for. If any say, that Christ moreover hath purchased faith to some, even to all that are actually saved, I answer: As neither the Arminians, nor Semi-Arminians, I mean the followers of Camero, will say this, or grant so much; so the granting of it, will evert the other universal, conditional redemption; for the Scripture speaks of but one kind of redemption, of one price laid down, of one covenant betwixt Jehovah and the Mediator; and of one giving unto Christ of persons to be redeemed. Shall we think, that Christ would lay down as great a ransom for such, as he was not to purchase faith unto, as for the rest? Shall we think, that he would lay down his life in vain, and make no purchase thereby? And of the reprobate, for whom he was not to purchase faith, he knew he could make no purchase; for without faith his death would be of no advantage unto them. And where do we read, that all were given unto him o redeem? Yea, are not the given ones clearly distinguished from the rest, John 17: 6, 9, as we cleared above?
††††††††† Again (32.) If the redemption of Christ be universal, and conditional, it must necessarily follow, that Christ laid down his life, and the price of his blood, as much for Judas, and all the reprobate, as he did for John, and all the elect. For the redemption being conditionally for all, it cannot be more for one, than for another. And yet this cannot be said, as appears from the reasons formerly adduced. This would say, that the Fatherís and Christís love was equal towards all; and that no more was purchased for the one, than for the other; and that the elect have no more benefit by Christís death, than the reprobate have; and that Christ had no more an eye to redeem the elect by his death, than to redeem the reprobate; and was no more a Cautioner for the one, than for the other: all which and the like cannot but be looked upon, as most absurd. Shall we think, that Christ became sin, as well, or as much, for Judas, as for Peter? Shall we think, that he redeemed all alike from the curse of the Law? These sound ill to Christian ears.
††††††††† So (33.) we may thus reason: Either Christís redemption is conditional and universal, as to the price laid down and satisfaction made; or as to the application and actual bestowing of the benefits purchased. But neither can be said to the advantage of the adversaries cause; for if the last be said, we willingly grant that some of the benefits, as justification, adoption, and actual glorification, are conferred in a manner conditionally. But some, as faith and the new heart, are given absolutely: and this cannot help the adversaries cause, for they will not say, that either all have faith bestowed
upon them, or that all are by believing justified and adopted, &c. and so this is not universal: and if the first be said, to wit, that Christ laid down his life conditionally, it must be said, that Christ did not lay down his life absolutely, but upon some condition; and what can that condition be, upon which the death of Christ was suspended? If it be said, that the faith of those, to whom it was to be preached, was the condition, then it must be said, that Christ did not die until these believed, or that his death was no satisfaction or price, until they actually believed: and then the Father could not be well pleased with the price as a satisfaction, until menís faith came to make it an actual price: which is both absurd, and contrary to Scripture. If it be said, that Christ did absolutely lay down his life a satisfactory ransom, and that for all, yet so as none, that would not fulfill the condition, should be redeemed, I answer: If it was an absolute satisfactory ransom, and accepted as such, something must have been purchased thereby, and all behooved actually and really to be delivered from the law and from the curse, or from something, by virtue of that absolute price; and they could not be made to pay over again what was paid by the price of his blood; for justice could not call for two satisfactions. And if all were, upon this absolute price paid, redeemed from the law, the curse, and the sentence of the first covenant, no man shall now die for that broken covenant. If it be said, no man was absolutely delivered even from that, but only conditionally, I answer: How then was it as absolute price? Or what was purchased thereby? If it be said, that a possibility of freedom was absolutely purchased ĖAnswer: This was rejected above, and the Scripture infers actual redemption from Christís purchase, He shall justify many, for he shall bear their iniquities, Isaiah 53: 11, which says, that all whose iniquities he did bear, shall be actually and really justified by him, and not have a mere possibility of justification.
††††††††† Further (34.) we may thus argue, if Christ died for all and everyone, He either died for all absolutely or conditionally. The first cannot be said, for the reasons already adduced militate against that. Nor can it be said, that he died for all conditionally. For then either he died to purchase life and salvation to all upon a condition of their performance of something proposed as a condition; or to purchase salvation, and all the means thereunto or conditions thereof, conditionally. But neither of these can be said. Therefore &c. The major is clear from this; that the enumeration is full, and no other way can this conditional redemption be conceived or explained. The minor may be thus confirmed. The first way cannot be said, to wit, that life and salvation was purchased to all, upon a condition to be by them performed, that is, upon condition of their believing: for either this condition is in the power of every Son of Adam, or not: If it be not in their power (as all but Pelagians will confess) then this redemption is no redemption; for a redemption of captives upon a condition impossible to them, is as good as no redemption. Nor can the last way be said, to wit, that redemption, and all the conditions and means thereof were conditionally purchased; for what can be assigned as the condition of these conditions?
And though there were a condition of the Lord working of faith assigned, (which yet we find not in Scripture) yet that would not help the matter; for that condition of faith would itself be a mean to salvation, and so purchased conditionally, upon another condition, and that other condition must be purchased upon another condition, and so in infinitum: which is absurd.
††††††††† As also (35.) this is considerable, that the asserting of universal redemption goes not alone; but there are several other universalities also affirmed, and maintained, either as consequences, or concomitants, or grounds thereof, which the Scripture knows not: such as these. (1.) A universal love and philanthropy, towards all and everyone, without any difference: which they lay down, as the ground of the sending of Christ to die for all indiscriminately. (2.) A universal will in God to save all, which they call an antecedent will; and hold forth as a velleity, or a wish and desire, that all might be saved; as if God could not effectuate whatever he desired, or could have a velleity towards anything, which either he could not, or would not effectuate. (3.) A universal predestination conditional; which expression Amerald used until the Synods in France did dissuade him therefrom. (4.) A universal gift of all to Christ, or a universal gift of Christ to all; that is, a will and purpose that Christ should lay down his life for all, and redeem them all; at least conditionally. (5.) A universal justification conditional. And why not also a universal salvation conditional? (6.) A universal covenant of grace made with all mankind in Adam, wherein is a free universal deed of gift of Christ first, and of pardon, Spirit and glory, in and by him, to all mankind without exception, upon condition of acceptance; as also an offer of faith, repentance, conversion, with all the consequences thereof. (7.) A universal will in God to call into this covenant, and unto the participation of the benefits thereof, all and every man. (8.) A universal execution of this will, or promulgation of this Gospel or New Covenant, unto all and everyone, by common favors and benefits bestowed on all, whereby all are called to believe in a merciful pardoning God; and all have abundance of mercies and means of recovery and of life; for the Lord now governs the world, only on terms of grace. (9.) Upon this follows a universal command to all men to use certain duties and means for their recovery by faith and repentance. (10.) A universal pardon of the first sin, so far, at least, that no man shall perish for the mere original sin of nature alone, unless he add the rejection of grace. (11.) Hence follows a universal judgment and sentence on all, in the great day, only according as they have performed the new Gospel conditions. (12.) Some also add a universal subjective grace, whereby all are enabled to perform the conditions of the new covenant. (13.) Universal proper fruits and effects of this death, whereby all the outward favors, that heathens enjoy are said to be purchased for them by Christ: and why not also what devils enjoy?
††††††††† Finally (36.) this assertion of universal redemption lays the ground of, and makes way to a new frame of the covenant of grace, quite overturning
its nature, and transforming it into a new covenant of works, making it one and the same with that, as to kind, and only to differ, as to the change of conditions to be performed by man: for as, in the first covenant, Adam was to obtain right to, and possession of life promised, in, by, for, through and upon the account of his fulfilling the condition of perfect obedience, imposed by the Lord; so, in the new covenant, man is to obtain and acquire to himself a right to and possession of the life promised, in, by, for, through and upon the account of his performance of the condition of faith and new obedience, now imposed in the Gospel; and all the difference is, that instead of perfect obedience to the law, which was the condition of the first covenant, now faith and sincere Gospel obedience is made the condition: And thus we can no less be said to be justified by works of the law, or which we do, than Adam should have been said to have been so justified, had he stood; and this justification gives as great ground of boasting unto man, and of making the reward of debt, and not of grace, as justification by the first covenant would have done; for though it be said, that Christ hath made satisfaction to justice, for the breach of the first law, and thereby purchased to all, upon condition, justification and salvation; yet this removes not the difficulty; for what is purchased by Christís death is made universal and common to all; and so can be nothing (according to our adversaries) but a putting of all men, in statu quo prius, in case to run and obtain the prize for themselves; as Godís absolute free love put Adam in that condition at first: Christís death (though thereby, as they say, he purchased the new covenant, which with them is the chief, if not the only, effect and fruit of his death and merits) can be no more, than a very remote ground of right to life and salvation, unto any person; for it is made universal and common to all, so that all have equal share therein, and advantage thereby; man himself, by performing the new conditions, only making the difference; so that the immediate ground of the right to life, which any have, is their own faith and obedience, or performance of the new covenant conditions. Whereby it is manifest, that as to our particular, and immediate right to happiness, we are to plead our own works, and lean to them, as our ground whereupon we may stand and appear before Godís tribunal; and upon the account thereof plead for the crown, as our due debt, having now run for it, and performed the condition, agreed upon, and so sing praises unto ourselves, instead of singing praises to our Redeemer. Hence the righteousness, wherein we must appear before God, is not the righteousness of Christ, but our own; for the righteousness of Christ, say they, is only imputed in regard of its effects, whereof the new covenant is the all, or the chief; and so that doth not become the righteousness of any man, nor can be said to be imputed to any man properly, (which also they assert) but his own faith is only imputed properly (which also they plead for) as his righteousness; not, as a way, medium, or method, of Gospel righteousness (especially when Gospel obedience is adjoined) the righteousness of Christ being thereby only accounted to be imputed, in that it hath procured, that our own Gospel righteousness,
faith and new obedience, shall be imputed to us, as our immediate righteousness, and the ground of our right to glory. What accord is betwixt this frame of the covenant of grace, and that way of justification held forth by Socinians, Arminians and Papists, the learned will easily see; and how contrary it is to the covenant of grace held forth in the Gospel, and hitherto professed and maintained by the orthodox, everyone acquainted therewith cannot be ignorant; and it is obvious, how opposite this is unto what the Apostle says in Philippians 3: 8, 9, yea doubtless, and I count all things but loss, for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus my Lord, for whom I have suffered the loss of all things, and do count them but dung; that I may win Christ, and be found in him, not having mine own righteousness, which is of the law; but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousness which is of God by faith. And Titus 3: 5, 6, 7, Not by works of righteousness, which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost which he shed on us abundantly, through Jesus Christ our Savior: that being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs, according to the hope of eternal life. And Romans 3: 20, 21, 22, 24, Therefore by the deeds of the Law there shall no flesh be justified Öbut now the righteousness of God without the law is manifest Ėeven the righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus Christ, unto all and upon all them that believe Ėbeing justified freely by his grace, through the redemption, that is in Jesus Christ. And many other places. It is no less clear, how hereby the true nature of justifying faith, and Gospel obedience is perverted: and withal how dangerous this is, if put into practice; or if men act and live accordingly, every serious exercised Christian knows.