LIFE OPENED Or,
A TREATISE Of the
Containing something of The nature of the Covenant of Works, The Soveraignty of GOD, The extent of the death of CHRIST, The nature & properties of the Covenant of Grace:
And especially of
The Covenant of Suretyship or Redemption between the LORD and the Son JESUS CHRIST,
Infants right to JESUS CHRIST, and the Seal of Baptisme:
With some Practicall Questions and Observations.
BY SAMUEL RUTHERFORD, Professor
of Divinitie in the
ZECH 6. 12. And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of Hosts, saying,
Behold the Man whose Name is the BRANCH, and he shall grow out of his place,
and He shall build the
13. Even He shall build the
Printed by Andro Anderson, for Robert Brown, and are to be sold at his Shop, at the Sign of the Sun, ANNO 1655.
Many have written, to the edifying of the Godly, of this excellent Subject: Its not much I can do in this, but have added some thoughts to what is said, intending a more Practicall way of the last points in another Treatise, to nit, of the application of Covenant-Promises, and of the influences of the Spirit under the Covenant of Grace, of which, especially of the latter of these two, few have practically written: And it is of much concernment, to make out the Union of our Duty and the breathings of the LORD, and what can be done under deadnesse, to either fetch the wind, or to be put in a spirituall condition, that the soul may ly fair for the receiving of the influences of GOD. I desire in this to speak for Truth, not either for or against persons of whom I am silent, concealing the names of any Contradicent, judging Truth so much the more desirable, when it may possibly he had with peace, and as little blowing or stirring of the fire of contradiction as can be, What is here said in a may of Disputing, the Moderate Reader, who is not taken with that way, may passe by and read what is practicall. The Author hath been (lest Truth should suffer by him) a little darkned, as report bears, with the name, I know not what, of a Protester, as one who hath deserted the Government and Discipline of the Church of GOD in SCOTLAND; But my humble thoughts are the same they were before: though I can adde nothing to the Truth. I look on these men the world so names Protesters, Schismaticks, Separatists, as sinfull men who stand in need of a Saviour, and as such as desire to fear GOD and love His Name, and would gladly have our practise and walk come a little more near to the Rule of the Gospel, and that our Land might mourn for all the abominations committed therein, which I desire to be spoken without any reflection upon any of the Godly in the Land, who, in that point, are of another Judgement. It is my desire to the LORD, that he would let us hear experiencedly the reality of that: Thus saith the LORD, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not, for a blessing is in it: so will I do for my servants sake, that I may not destroy them all. The LORD JESUS be with your Spirit.
Yours in the Lord Jesus,
Contents of the I. PART.
CHAP. I. and II.
The four particulars of the Treatise. pag.1.
Propositions touching ADAMS state. p. 1,2.
ADAM was predestinate to life eternall in Christ, and how. pag. 2,
What is the intent and sense of the threatning, Gen. 2. 17. and Gen. 3. 20. Dust thou art, &c. p. 3,4,5.
Threatnings of the Law reveal what the Law-giver may jure inflict, by justice and Law deserving, not what shall come to passe. p. 4.
Except it be both a threatning and a Prophesie. p. 5.
What is carnall security. ibid.
What Adam was to believe in that threatning: p. 5,6.
How the promises and the threatnings differ in this. p. 7.
How Law threatnings to the Elect are Evangelick. p. 8.
The Elect before Conversion bear no part of the Law-curse, nor is the Law-curse devided between them and Christ. p. 10,11.
Faith is too near to be made a cause of satisfaction for sin by all who hold that Christ gave a satisfactory ransome for all and every one of mankind. p. 11.
Accepting or not accepting satisfaction is before saith, and so believing or not believing can be no ground of the sufficiencie of the price payed for the Reprobate, or of the laying of the sins of all upon Christ. p. 11,12,13.
God may accept the satisfaction of Christ without any condition required on our part. p. 13.
God intended a Law-dispensation, but for a time. 2. Adam how he was ordained for a Law life. 3. How predestinate to Glory, how not. 4. That the heathens have no more universall grace then Divels. 5. No ground for such grace. p . 13,14,15.
It was condisccension in the Lord to enter in Covenant with man. 2. Temptations in fearing we are not chosen, discovered. 3. Beings and not-beings are debtors to God. 4. Self denyall required in sinlesse nature, as in sinfull. 5. Man considered three wayes.
How saith layes hold upon conditionall promises, and temptations of unbelief thereabout. p 16,17.
Of the Covenant of nature. p. 18,19,20.
Its not written in the heart of man by nature, that God should promise life Eternall to man, upon condition of obedience. 2. The debt of justice cannot ty God. 3. God punisheth not sin, by necessitie of nature, 4. Nor defends he his own declarative Glory by necessitie of nature. 5. Nothing can be given to God All sufficient. 6. No meriting of the creature. 7. We are to have humble thoughts of free Grace. 8. Low thoughts of our selves. 9. Promises make no strict justice between the Lord and us. p. 20,21.
God falls in no sort from his naturall dominion, though he impose not penal Laws upon the reasonable creature. p. 25,26.
God loves his essentiall Glory by necessity of nature, but not his declarative Glory, by any such necessity p. 28,29,30.
In every Covenant there is some out goings of Grace. p. 35.
The passage 1 Chron.29. 11,12, cleared, and why none can give to God. p. 37,38.
Our vain boasting of self, my, and such proud pronoumes. p. 39,40.
How excellent to obey. p. 45.
Sanctified reason is not soft. p. 45,46.
How near are wee to justification by Works, and to be
sick of love for proud (
What place death hath in the Covenant. 2. What Reprobates and the damned are to do. p. 47,48.
What Adam was to do in the Intervall between the fall and the publishing of the Gospel. p. 48.
How the Lord is
What life is promised in the Covenant of Works. p. 47,48.
Wilfulnesse of unbelief, Some doubts are to be left to GOD only to solve. p 48,49.
How the Lord is the God of Adam. p. 49.
No promise of influences is made to Adam. p. 49.
What life is promised in the Covenant of Works. p. 49,50
Whether or no did Adam and all the Reprobates in him lose all right to the creatures. p. 50,51.
A threefold right. 1. Naturall. 2. Providentiall. 3. Spirituall. What right Reprobates and unbelievers have to the living, eating &c. p. 53,54.
What way God is ours. p. 55,56.
A furniture of Grace, and a want of Christ. p 56.
The Arminians ground that God was in a maner compelled to appoint the New Covenant. p. 56,57.
The naturall antecedent love of God a dream. p 57.
The threefold Covenant of some considered. p. 57,58.
And of the Arminians, p. 64. considered, and rejected. The Law as propounded to Israel was the very Covenant of Grace, p. 60,61,62. and the Covenant
in the Old one with that of the New Covenant, but differenced in some accidents. p. 63, 64.
Self-searching to know under what Covenant We are, a spirituall condition, and why? p 65,66.
The threatnings under the New Testament more spirituall. p 67,68.
What it is to be under the Law. ibid.
The combate between the flesh and the Spirit, and the combate in naturall men differenced. p 68.
Compelled convictions argue a Law Spirit. ibid.
Its easier to be sound in the saith, then to be Godly. p. 69.
Of the legall terrors. ibid.
Of literall and legall convictions and these of the Gospel. p. 70.
Marks of such as are under the Law. p. 70,71.
A sweetnesse in the hardest command, because holy. ib.
An heaven in duties. p. 71.
A new nature stands for a command. ibid.
Covenanting externall, visible, professed, conditionall, and Covenanting internall, invisible, reall, absolute, and how they differ. p. 72,73,74.
Infants are within the Covenant. p. 73,74,75,76.
And to be baptized, and invested with Covenant priviledges. p 76,77,78,79.
Its false that none are in Covenant under the New Testament but converts. ib.
The Covenant made with Abraham and us, the same. p. 80,81.
Nor is that Covenant a civill Covenant. p. 81,82.
The New Testament Kingdome is spirituall, though there be seals in it and externall worship. p. 82,83.
Of federall holinesse. ibid.
Its not the Physicall but the Morall root that is the first subject of the Covenant conditionall, and externall. p 84,85.
The formall ground of right to Baptisme. p 85,86.
The places Acts 8.37. Mark 16. 16. opened, and are nothing for, but much against Anabaptists. p 85,86.
The text, Acts 2. 39. opened, is strong for Infant baptisme. p. 86,87.
A conditionall Covenant is properly a Covenant, though it be not ever a fulfilled Covenant. p 90,91.
No means are proved, by Law, or Gospel, to save infants by the opposers of infant Baptisme. p 91,92.
Two diverse considerations of the Covenant, one in abstracts as a simple way
of saving sinners, and so all in the
The new heart is only commanded to some, and to others it is both commanded and promised. p 95.
The place Gen. 17. opened. p. 95.
Circumcision and Baptisme compared. p 95,96,97.
What blessings and priviledges must infants want, if they be without the Covenant. p 98,99,100.
The place Mark 10,15,16. Luke 18. Math. 19. Of such is the Kingdome of heaven, opened p. 100,101,102.
What blessing Christ bestowed upon the infants, whom hee took in his armes. p. 102,103,104.
A Covenanted seed is promised to be added to the Church of the Jews. 104,105
Considerable differences between external and internal Covenanting. 107,108
The place Rom. 1 1,6. If the root be holy, so are the branches. 110,111.
By the holy Root cannot be meant the predestinate to Glory only. 113,114.
But visible professors, fathers and children. p. 115,116.
The children are in Covenant not by birth, but by such a birth. p. 116,117.
Covenant holinesse is not the compleat and adequat cause of reall ingrafting in Christ. p. 116,117,118
Other considerable differences between externall and internall Covenanting. p. 118,119.
There is no universall Grace Subjective or objective given to all, Rom. 10. 18. Psal. 19. 3. p. 119,120,121,122,123,124.
Nor power of believing given to all. p. 124,125,126.
The judgement of men esteeming such visible Covenanters
to be reall converts before they can be admitted, makes all
The invisible Church is the full subject of the promises of speciall note, &c. p. 131,132
Hypocrites have no warrand to challenge the seals from any command of God, as M. Thom. Hooker saveth. p. 132.
Who are Hypocrites. p. 133,134
What Hypocrisie is. p. 135
Parties in the Covenant of Grace as acted upon in heart. p. 137 The Word and the Spirit. p. 138
Of God speaking himself. ib. Prophesies that now are differ from Scripture Prophesies, and how. p. 139
Revelations made to the Godly, when they are in much nearnesse to GOD p. 140, 141
Marks of a spirituall disposition. p. 142, 143, 144, 145.
To do a duty as a duty, and not as delightfull is a spirituall disposition. p. 144
Not as successefull, but as a duty. p. 145
The nature, characters, properties of the new heart and the new spirit of Covenanters. p. 145, 146.
The heart the man. p. 146
The good heart. ib.
How rare a pecce the heart is. p. 147
Of the raigning evils of the heart. ib. Why we are more shamed of lying then of pride. p. 149
The concurrence of the Word to the act of infusion of a new heart a mysterie. p. 149, 150
The Atheisme and impossible lies of the heart. p. 150, 151
The signes of the new heart. p. 151, 152
The place of Evangelick Works in the Covenant.
2. Possession of glory and right to glory
different. 3. A twofold right to
glory. 4. We are not justified by
Works. 5. The place of declarative
The faith that James speaks of is not true saith, p 160
The acts of saving faith, p. 161, 162
James must speak of two sorts of faiths, p. 162, 163
The Arminian Argument to prove that James speaks of declared justification, answered, p. 165, 166
How faith [foreign] only justifies, p 170, 171
The Socinian and Arminian faith, and Papists formed faith includes new obedience and repentance, p 172, 173
Contrari to the Scripture which differenceth between faith and new obedience, p. 174, 175, 176
Right to life eternall and possession of life eternal differ in their nature and causes, p. 176, 177
The necessity of Works, p. 177, 178
Possession of life and right to life differ, p 178, 179, 180
And contrare objections removed, ib.
Whether or not suffered Christ for any sin against the Gospel only, such as finall unbeleef, which is conceived to be the only sin against the Gospel. That Christ died not for all without exception. The unwarrantablenesse of that Doctrine, how the Law commands justifying faith, and repentance, how not, p. 181, 182, &c.
Sins against the Gospel are also sins against the Law, p. 188, 189
Whether the Lord Mediator as Mediator command the same good Works in the Covenant of Grace which are commanded in the Covenant of Works, p. 192, 193
Christ layes one way Evangelick commands upon the Elect, and another way upon the Reprobate, p. 194 How the Reprobate are still under the Covenant of Works, how not, p. 194
No promise of perseverance to Adam, p. 194, 195
Nor any promise to him of influences of Grace, p. 195, 196
4. Classes of obediences considerably compared among themselves. p. 196, 197, 198 Christs obedience most perfect, most of his own. p. 196
Most undue or least of debt coming from God man, & so most meritorious, p. 197
Angels obedience. 2. Of their own, but not so as Christs of his own, and so lesse meritorious, p. 198
3. The obedience of Adam more of his own, then that of Angels, yet lesse obedience, ibid.
4. Gospel-obedience hath least of the nature of obedience, p . 198, 199
The Law of Works required not simplie doing, but doing to the end, p. 200, 208
Whether faith as true, or faith as continuing to the end, be the condition of the Covenant of Grace, p. 201, 202.
Faith which endures to the end, but not quatenus as it indures to the end is the condition of the Covenant of Grace. p 201, 202
Faith in the first lively acts saves and justifies, p 202, 203
Whether is Christs righteousnesse imputed and made ours, because we believe and apprehend it ours, or do we believe, because it is ours, because we believe, p. 206, 207
Faith presupposeth three unions. 1. Naturall. 2. Legall. 3. Federal, and maketh a fourth, p. 208, 209
There be four or five sundry Adversaries against whom the holy Ghost in Scripture contends in the point of justification, p. 210, 211
The dominion of the Law. p. 211, 212
What is meant by the oldnesse of the letter. p. 213
How we are freed therefrom, ib.
A threefold bondage of the Law, ib.
Of the dignitie of the Gospel above the Law, p. 213, 214
Of the perpetuity of the Covenant of Grace, and the considerable differences between it and the Covenant of Works. p. 214, 215, 216, 217.
How it continues with these that are asleep in the Lord, Mat. 22. Exod. 3. 6. p. 216
Of the graciousnesse thereof. p. 216, 217
Of Law-fear and Gospel-fear, p. 217, 218.
Of the Law-fear of falling away, and the Gospel faith of persevering, p. 218, 219
Why feelings of sin seldome wants unbelief, and should have the saith of a payed ransome, p. 221, 222
Christ died not to blot out all sense of sin, but rather to quicken a godly sense thereof, p. 221, 222, 223
Contents of the II. Part.
Christs roome in both Covenants, p. 225
Of Christs active and passive obedience, how they concur as one satisfaction, p. 229, 230
WHerein stands our right to Christ, and the satisfaction made for us by Christ? 2. Faith is not the cause of our right. 3. Christs incarnation and dying are not favours merited by Christ. 4. How Adams sinne and Christs righteousnesse are ours, p. 230, 238.
How Christ suffered for us in our room and place. 2. He died not for all and every one. 4. How many wayes Christ may be said to die in our stead. 4. The Lords so dying for all makes not all saveable in Christ, nor the Gospel preachable to all Nations. 5. Christ died in the stead of the elect, p. 236, 237, 238, 239.
Though we did not substitute him in our place, p. 249, 250
The differences between Christs dying and the punishment due to the Elect, p. 250, 251, 252
The legall oneness between Christ and us, p. 253
To die [foreign] & [foreign] for us, is to die in our stead, in all eminent languages, p. 253
Christ died not for sins and in the stead of sins, as he died for sinners, p. 256
How we are in Christ dying, and crucified in him. 2. A twofold crucifying of us with Christ. 3. A discourse of mortification. 4. The actings of the mortified. 5. That we are to be mortified in our affections, p. 257, 258, 259.
Though we die personally yet we died in Christ legally, p. 259
We are not to desire a Law-wakening, p. 259, 260
What mortification is, p. 261
The influence of Christs death on mortification, p. 262
Four sorts of actings in mortification, p. 265, 266
We must be mortified to all sort of created things, p. 268, 269, 270, 271
Forbidden desires. p. 270, 271
The Covenant of Suretyship or of Redemption between God and the Mediator Christ. 2. Christ is not a meer witnesse, but the Author of the Covenant. 3. The Socinian way of Works cannot quiet the conscience. 4. Christ is upon both sides of the Covenant. 5. Justice mediates not. 6. Reasons of the entrance of sin.
That there is a Covenant of Suretyship between JEHOVAH and the Son, is proven by 11. Arguments. p. 290, 291, 292.
Christ calling to the Lord his God proves this. 291, 292
(2) Christ is a Servant, Messenger, Shepherd, not by nature, but free compact and agreement. p. 292
(3. Ar.) Christ offered his service freely. p. 293
(4. Arg.) There is giving and taking between God and Christ. p. 293, 294
(5. Arg.) Christ received the seals whither he needed seals, or not. p. 295, 296
(6) Christ with the Father dispensed with the Law. p. 296
(7. Arg) Rich promises that speak a Covenant made to Christ. p. 296
8. Ar. The Prophesies of Christ and the promises of, and to him. p. 298
9. Ar. Ask of me,
Ps. 2. 10.
And, O how low a wager, and how high a designe. p. 300
The Covenant of Redemption is explained in three eternal acts. 1. Designation of one. 2. Decree and destination. 3. Delectation in the work. p. 302, 303.
The attributes of God declared herein. p. 304, 305
The Fathers eternall delighting in the Son. 309, 307
The strength of Gods love to man. p. 306, 307, 308
The differences between the Covenant of Suretyship made with Christ, and the Covenant of Reconciliation made with sinners. 2. The conjunction of the Covenants. 3. How the promises are made to the Seed. The place, Gal. 3.16. opened. 4. Christ suffered and acted ever as a publike head, p. 308, 309, 310.
The 13. Argument from the necessity of Gods call. 2. Of Typicall sprinkling of the blood of the Covenant, and of the Testament. The place, Heb. 13.20. opened. Of the place, Heb. 7. 22. the act of Suretyship, the assurance of our state, p. 316, 317, 318.
How the promises are made to Christ, p. 317
The peculiar nature of Christs Testament as such a Testament, p 318, 319
Of the Suretyship of Christ, p. 323, 324
Punishment suffered by the Surety can remove punishment from the guilty man but cannot remove formally the inherent guilt, and how this was done by Christ. p. 323, 324
Christs undertaking for all. p 326, 327
Of the place, Prov. 8, 22, 23, 24, &c. p. 306, 307, 308, 327
Arminius yeelds a Covenant between the Father and the Son, p. 327, 328
And how, for Jehovah cannot promise a seed to Christ as a reward of his work by their way, having no Soveraigne power over the will, p. 328, 329, 330
Of such as are his seed. Of the Covenant of the Lord with David, p. 836, 837
Ps. 89. opened, ibid. p. 338. 339. Mic. 5.2. p 339
Christ procures the Gospel to be Preached to Reprobates, but undertakes not for them. A necessary distinction of the Covenant as Preached according to the approving will of God, and as acted upon the heart according to the decree of God. The place, Jer. 31, Heb. 8. This is my Covenant, opened, p. 339, 340, 341, 342.
The distinction of the approving wil of God, & of his wil of pleasure, p. 342, 343
Antinomians confound the efficient cause of the obedience and the objective cause on the rule of the Word, p. 345, 346
The purpose and scope of the Holy Ghost is not, Heb. 8. and Jer. 31. to speak or treat of the Covenant of Grace as Preached in the letter, but as acted upon the heart, that so Christ may be advanced as a more spirituall and effectuall, teacher and Priest, the Moses, Aaron, &c. p. 346, 347, 348
Which two are confounded by Antinomians.
Of the promises made to Christ in the Covenant of Mediation, p. 349, 350.
A twofold justification of Christ, p. 349
Christ had a promise of influences, Adam had none at all, p. 350, 351
Our mistake touching comforts and duties, p. 351
Christs satisfaction p. 351, 352.
We may flee to the Covenant, because of Christ, p. 352, 353
Rods are booked to the Covenant of Works, Deut. 28. and in the Covenant of Grace to both the Covenanters, Psal. 89.30,31. &c. p. 353
The condition and properties of the Covenant of Redemption. p. 355, 356.
No such condition is required of Christ, as of Adam. p. 356
The paying of the price of blood and dying is the formall condition of the Covenant of Redemption upon the part of Christ. p 356, 357
The holy qualifications of Christ in the Covenant of Suretyship, p. 357, 358
These qualifications how to be followed by us, p. 354
Christs Grace of headship what force it may have upon us, p. 360, 361
The properties of the Covenant of Suretyship. 1. Freedom. 2. Graciousnesse. 3. Eternitie, p. 361, 362, 363
The exposition of that place, 1 Cor. 15.28. p. 363, 364
Christ even after that universall judgement, a mediatorie Head, King and Lord. p. 366, 367, 368
Pag.2.lin.19.read Immortality. p.15.l.19.r. no-beings. p.17.l.29.r. no-beings. p.21.l.1,2.r. God therefore. p.22.l.31.r. God it. p.28 l.26.r. Isa 42. p 39.l.10.r. abiding Life p. 24 .l.24.r [foreign] p.51.l.27 r. is in the substance. p 53.l.2.r. no grinding of. p.55.l.16.r. floor. p.70.l.2.r. literally. p.92.l.10,11.r. decreed. p.96.l.5.r. ground. p.103.l.13.r. as symbolick. p.104 l.36.r that the. p.134.l.14.r. but cannot. p 136.l.21.r. here. p.40.l.13.r. seated no discursive. p.141.l.33.r. gnawing. p.160.l.26.r. Menochius. p.166.l.26. in mar. r. spectasset. p.168.l.17.r. it is not only. p.169.l.29.r. held. p.186.l.33.r. Gal. 14.p.195.l.1.r. thereof. p.201.l.20.r. partaker. p.206.l.11.r have it so. p.218.l.29.r steep for sharp p.2 .l.11.r. not only not quarrell. p.239.l.15.r. depends not upon p 249 l.1.r. Arminius. p.251.l. 9 r. acceptation. p.269.l.26.r. arts. p. .l.3.r. who are not dead to opinions. p.282.l.14. gave thee. p.299.l.29.r. in his hand. p.309.l.36 dele Joh. 8. p.314.l.24 r. are. p.316.l.10.r. be that said. p.333.l.18.r. agrees to be. p.334.l.15.r. and will have.
THE COVENANT OF LIFE OPENED.
What is to be spoken of the COVENANT of LIFE, shall be reduced to these Heads.
1. The nature and differences of the Covenant of Works, and that of Grace.
2. The Mediator of the Covenant of Life.
3. The application of Covenant-Promises.
4. Of Covenant-Influences of Grace under the Gospel.
Of the latter, especially of the last, not much hath been spoken by any in a practicall way.
The Apostle, 1 Cor. 15. 47. The first man is of the earth, earthie, the second man is the Lord from Heaven, speaking of the two eminently publick persons, the noble heads of great Families; makes the condition of the first Adam to be animal and earthy, & that of the second Adam to be spiritual and Heavenly. And without doubt, to be born of the house and seed of the second Adam, John 1. 12, 13. must darken the
glory of the first birth, so as there is no great ground to boast of the skin and empty lustre of Nobility and good blood; Although when the creature called (I) and (self) do creep in to lodge in a poor feeble piece of clay, that clay so lustred must be some God.
2. The flower and choisest of Adam his Paradise-state, is an earthly condition, as is evidenced by his eating, Gen. 2. 9,16. sleeping, 21, his being placed in a Garden, to dresse it, 8,16,17, his marriage, 23, 24. his Lordship over birds, beasts, fishes, Gen. 1. 28. But in the second Adam, besides all these, we are gifted with a life of more worth then many acres of Vineyards. They declare therefore that there is much of the first Adam in them, little of the second; Who would conquesse again the many lands, that our first father Adam sold, and joyn house to house, and lay field to field, till there be no place, and disinherit all others, as if they were bastard heirs, and themselves the only righteous heirs of Adam, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth. Isa. 5. 8. And the more spiritual any be, the more are they above the nothing world.
3. Mortality may be called supernaturall to the earthie part of Adam, since it is not naturally due to a body of earth, to claim, life for ever. Though immortality be due to whole Adam consisting of soul and body and endued with the image of God. For the soul cannot die.
4. But if we speak of such a life, to wit, of a heavenly communion with God, as Adam was a comprehensor or one who is supposed now to have runne well, and won the Gold, and the Crown, such a life was due to Adam, not by nature, but by promise.
5. Adam in his first state was not predestinate to a law glory, and to influences of God to carry him on to persevere: Nor could he blesse God, that he was Chosen before the foundation of the world to be Law- holy, as Eph. 1. 3. What? Was not then Adam predestinated to life eternall, through Jesus Christ? He was: But not as a publick person representing all his sons, but as another single person, as Abraham, or Jacob: for Gospel predestination is not of the nature, but of this or that person: Therefore were we not predestinat to life eternall in him, but in Christ, Rom. 8. 29, 30.
6. Therefore Adam fell from the state of Law-life both totally and
finally, but not from the state of Gospel election to glory. For the Lord had in the Law-dispensation a love designe, to set up a Theatre and stage of free grace; And that the way of works should be a time dispensation, like a summer-house to be demolished again: As if the Lord had an aime that works and nature should be a transient, but no standing Court for righteousnesse: Hence it is now the reliques of an old standing Court, and the Law, is a day of assyse, for condemning of malefactors, who will acknowledge no Tribunall of grace, but only of works: And it is a just Court to terrifie robbers, to awe borderers and loose men, but to beleevers it is now a Court for a far other end.
What is the intent and sense of the threatning, Gen. 2. 17. In the day thou eats, thou shalt die. And Gen. 3. 20. Dust thou art, &c .
WE must distinguish between the intent of the threatener and the intent and sense of the threatening.
Law-threatnings may be well exponed, by the execution of them, upon persons, against, whom they are denounced: As, 1 King. 11. 30. compared with 1 King. 12. 15, 16. Ten Tribes are taken from Davids house according to the World of the Lord Because therefore the threatning of death was executed upon Christ, 1 Pet. 3. 18. Gal. 3. 10, 11, 12, 13, 14. then must the threatning, Gen. 2. 17. Deut. 27. 26. have been intended against the Man Christ, and because beleevers die, as all do, Heb. 9. 27. the threatning must have been intended against them also, for that they sinned in Adam, and because it is out of question that the reprobate die the first and second death, the threatning must also have been intended against them. And therefore, in the intent of the threatner, the threatning was mixed, partly Legall, partly Evangelick; According to the respective persons, that the Lord had in his eye: He had therefore in his heart both Law and Gospel. It is therefore to no purpose to aske what king of death, and whether purely legall, which the Lord threatned to Adam: For the Question
supposeth that the Covenant of Works was to stand, and that the Lord was to deny a Saviour to fallen man. But we may say what death the Lord actually inflicts, that death he intended to inflict, nor did the Lord decree to inflict, a meerly legall death personall first and second, upon Adam and all his race.
Obj. Adam was to believe he should certainly die; For so was the threatning, Gen. 2. 17. if he should sin, or then we must say, that Adam was to beleeve he should not actually die, the latter cannot be said, for then he was to believe the contradicent of the Lords true threatning, which was the lie of the Serpent, Gen. 3. Ans. He was to beleeve neither of the twain according to the event, for there are two sort of threatnings, some pure and only threatnings, which reveal to us, what God may, in Law, do, but not what he hath decreed and intended, actu secundo & quoad eventum, to do, and bring to passe; These threatnings contain some condition, either expressed in other Scripture, or then reserved in the mind of the Lord. 1. Because the Lord so threatned Adam, as he remained free and absolute either to inflict the punishment, or to provide an Evangelick remedy, even as Solomon, 1 King. 2. 37. saith to Shimei (in the day thou passest over the brook, Kidron, thou shalt surely die) that is, thou shalt be guilty of death, reus mortis: Yet it cannot be denyed, but Solomon reserved his own Kingly power, either to pardon Shimei, or to soften, or change the sentence. 2. The words of the Law do reveal, what the Magistrate may do, jure, and what the guilty deserves by the Law, but do not reveal the intention and absolute decree of the Law-giver, and what punishment actually, & quoad eventum shall be inflicted upon the guilty, and what shall come to pass as a thing decreed of the Lord: So, Gen. 9. 6. the Murtuerer shall die by the Sword of the Magistrate, and Exod. 22. 18, 19, 20. the Witch, the man that lyes with a beast, he that sacrifices to a strange god, shall die the death jure, morito, and by Law-deserving, but it followeth not, but such as commit these abominations, do live, as is clear in the Kings of Assyria, Chaldaa, and many of Israel, who were not put to death, but lived quoad eventum, though contrary to the Word of God. 3. The expresse Precepts of the Decalogue, Thou shalt have no other gods before, me, &c. Thou
shalt not kill. Thou shalt not steal, &c. do shew what in Law we ought not to do, but not what actually shall come to passe: For there be not a few who do actually, &c quoad eventum, worship strange gods, kill, and steal. But there are other threatnings which are both threatnings, and also Prophesies, and these reveal both the Law and the fact, and what the Law-giver may, jure, and, in Law, inflict, and what shall actually come to passe upon the transgressours, if they continue in impenitency, Rom. 2. 1. 2, 3, Rom. 1. 18. 1 Cor. 6. 9, 10.
Obj. Then in all threatnings and promises we are not to believe, that though we sin, we shall actually & quoad eventum die, and though we obey and beleeve, wee are not to beleeve that GOD shall fulfill his promise, and that our salvation shall come to passe, only we are to believe jure, that we deserve to die, and that we shall have eternall life, jure promissionis, but not actually and according to the event. Answ. Something is to be said of the threatnings, then of the promises: As touching the sense, we are to beleeve. In the threatnings conditionall as (yet fourty days and Nineveh shall be destroyed) and (in that day thou eats thon shalt surely die, in thy person and all thine the first and second death) we are not to believe the event, nor is it carnall security, not to beleeve such an event, we are only to have a godly fear and to tremble, at the dreadfull deserving of such threatnings legall, as alway are to be exponed and beleeved by all within the Visible Church, with an Evangelick exception of repentance. If therefore Adam did beleeve that he and all his should in their own persons actually suffer the first and second death, and that irrecoverably, he had no warrand, for any such belief, and the like may be said of Nineveh. For when the Lord said, in the day that thou eats thou shalt die, the first and second death, thou and all thy children personally: His meaning was, except I provide an Evangelick remedy and a Saviour. Godly fear trembles more at the darkning of the glory of the Lord in a broken Law, then at the event of inflicted wrath, were it even Hells fire.
Obj. Adam was to beleeve no such exception. Answ. True. Because it was not revealed, nor was he to beleeve the contrary that he should irrecoverably and eternally perish, because that
was not revealed: But the threatning of the Law doth not deny the Evangelick remedy, as it neither doth affirme it.
Obj. Then was Adam to believe, it was true which the Serpent said, ye shall not surely die, & quoad eventum, but ye shall be as Gods living and knowing good and evill.
Ans. Neither doth that follow, for in the meaning of the liar, it was not true, that they should not die, either by deserving (for Satan brangles the equity and righteousness of the Law and threatning) or actually and in the event, for both were false and neither revealed, and faith is not to go beyond what is revealed of God. And Sathan disputed against both the equity of the threatning, as if it had been unjust, in Law, and against the event, as a fiction and a thing that should not come to passe in the event, which indeed did not come to passe; but not according to the Serpents lying and false principles.
Obj. Was then Adam to despair and to beleeve nothing of a Saviour. Ans. He was not obliged to despaire, but to rely, by vertue of the first Commandement of the Decalogue, upon God infinitly powerfull, mercifull, gracious, and wise to save, for that was revealed and written in his heart, and that is far from despairing: But in the intervall between the fall and the Lords publishing the blessed Gospel, and news of the seed to come, he was so to trust in God for possible deliverance in generall (as the Law of Nature requireth) but he was to beleeve nothing of unrevealed particulars, far lesse of the mystery of the Gospel, which was kept secret, since the world began, Rom. 16. 25. Obj. Then may also the damned in Hell, who are not loosed from their obligation to the Law of Nature, and the first Command, be obliged to rely on an infinite and Almighty God, for their deliverance, for they are not obliged to despair, nor is there an obligation to any sin.
Ans. There is not the like reason, for though the damned be not loosed from the Law of Nature, but are to rely upon God in his whole al-sufficiency, yet with exception of his revealed Justice and Truth: Now he hes expresly revealed, that their worm never dieth, and their fire never goeth out. And to believe that, is not to despaire. Obj. What are then such Heathens to beleeve as
touching that threatning, who never heard of the Gospel? Ans. They are under the Law of Nature, and to beleeve that sin deserves wrath, according to the infinitnesse of the Majesty, against whom it is committed, and to obey the Law of Nature, and read the Book of the Creation carefully: But and if the news and rumor of a Saviour come to their ears, their sin cannot but be Evangelick, in not pursuing the reality and truth of such a soveraign remedy. Yet it is not to be thought, that though the Gospel be come to all Nations Rom. 16. 26. that that is to be meant. 1. Of every Generation of all Nations. Or, 2. of the individuall persons, either young, or come to age, of every Nation under Heaven, experience and Scripture speaketh against both.
Obj. But is not the Covenant of grace contrary to the Law and Covenant of Works? Answ. A diversity there is, but contrary wills in the holy Lord cannot be asserted. Yea the Gospel may be proven out of the Law, and from first Commandement of the Decalogue, if any act of the Lords free will and infinite wisedome shall be added to prove the Assumption. So,
If the first Command teach that God is infinitely wise, mercifull, gracious, just, and able to save, then, if so it please him, he shall save;
But the first Command teacheth the former: And the Gospel revealing the unsearchable riches of Christ, Eph. 3. 8. expresly saith so much. Ergo.
As to the promises, they contain not only the jus, equity and goodnesse of the thing promised, but also that the Lord shall actually perform, yea and intends to perform, what he hath promised upon condition that we perform the required condition. And in this the promises differ not a little from these threatnings, that are only threatnings, of what God may do in Law, but not from these threatnings which are both threatnings and also Propheticall predictions of what shall come to passe, therefore must we here difference betwixt threatnings, and such and such threatnings.
The promises are considered as they are Preached and anunciated to all within the Visible Church, and as they are made in the intention of God with the Elect and Sons of the promise: The same way the threatnings admit of a two-fold consideration. The
promises to the Elect as intended of God, reveal that both the Lord minds to give the blessing promised, and the condition that is grace to perform the condition, and so they are promises Evangelick both in the matter, and in the intention of the Lord; But as proponed to the reprobate, who are alwayes from their birth to their death under a Covenant of Works, really as touching the LORDS holy Decree, they are materially Evangelick promises, but formally and in the Lords intention legall, as every dispensation to them is legall, forasmuch as the Lord hath decreed to deny the grace, by which they may or can fulfill the condition of the promise, which is proper to the Law, as it is peculiar to the Gospel, that the Lord both gives the mercy promised and also the grace to fulfill the condition of the promise.
The threatnings to beleevers,
especially such as are legall ( if you
beleevers fall away. ye shall eternally perish) are to beleevers, though materially
legall, peremptorie, and admit no exception, yet they are formally and in the
Lords intention directed to them upon an Evangelick intention, nor do they say
that the Lord intends and decrees that they shall eternally perish, for he hath
predestinate them to the contrary, to wit, to grace and glory, Ephes. 1. 4. Nor that he wills that they
should beleeve either their eternall damnation, or their finall and totall
falling away, which inevitably leads thereunto. For they, knowing that they are
in Christ, 2 Cor. 13. 5. Rom. 8. 16,17. and freed from
in God, revealed in the Mediator; and that if they continue in a way of opposing Christ, they not only deserve by Law (which Law-deserving also beleevers are to apprehend) to be broken, but actually and quoad eventum shall eternally perish. Believers are to believe the Decree of God to save them, though they hear the threatnings, for its revealed. But the Reprobate are to beleeve only the sense and Law-deserving and event of the threatning, if they repent not, but are to beleeve no decree to save them.
The Elect non-converted are not under Law-wrath. 2. Faith is no cause of satisfaction. 3. Christ can not have satisfied for the sins of the Reprobate.
WHETHER the Elect unconverted be
under wrath is a doubt to many. It is true, they
are servants of sin, Rom. 6. 17. Blind, and under the power of Satan as Reprobats are, Acts 26.18. By nature children of wrath, even as
others, Eph. 2.3. Ans. Their sins
committed before their Conversion, are according to the Covenant of Works, such
as deserve everlasting condemnation, and they are jure and in relation to that Covenant, heirs of wrath, as well as others. 2. But we must distinguish
between a state of election and everlasting, though unseen love, that they are
under, as touching their persons: and a state of a sinfull way that they are
born in, and walk in as others do, untill they be converted. As to the former
state, it is true which is said, Ier. 31.3. I have loved thee with an everlasting love.
saith, Iohn 5.
4. The beleever hath passed from death,
as it is a curse, and shall never come to
judgement and condemnation, he cannot mean that they have half passed from
the curse, and half not. 2. Beleevers are delivered, in Christ, from the victory, sting, power of sin, curse of the Law,
and every curse, that is in affliction, and from condemnation not in part only,
but in whole: Else their triumph were but in part, contrair to, 1 Cor. 15. 54, 55, 56. Hos. 13. 14. Isa. 25. 8. Nor should they be washen from all their sins and the
spots thereof in his blood, if they might wash themselves from any spot, by
bearing a part of the Law-curse in themselves, contrair to Can. 4. 7. Jer. 50. 20. Joh. 1.28. 1 Joh. 1.8. Rom. 8.1.3.
What ever Christ was made for the redeemed ones, that he was made fully for
them, in part, and in whole, for he is their perfect Saviour. But Gal. 3.13. He is made a curse for us, and able to save to the outmost all that
come to him. Heb. 7. 25. Therefore the half or a part of satisfactory
vengeance, cannot be upon us, and the other half on Christ, for this is to make men and Martyrs joint satisfiers of
justice with Christ, by their own blood and sufferings, to prevent the scaddings
of purgatory; For though we teach against Antinomians,
that the Godly are punished for sins according to Justice, yet that is
Evangelick, not law justice, for they bear not one dram weight of satisfactory
wrath and curse jointly with Christ, Antinomians
say that sin, root and branch is taken away in Justification, so that there is
no sin nor punishment for sin in the justified man. 4. The beleevers are
blessed through Jesus Christ, Gal, 3.
10,13. Psal. 32. 1,2.
near the opinion of these, who make faith a cause of satisfaction for sin, as they must teach, who hold that Christ payed a ransome on the crosse, for the sins of all and every one. For that which added, maketh satisfaction to be counted and formally reckoned as satisfaction, in order to the expiation of the mans sins, so that by no justice he can suffer for them, and which being removed, maketh the payed satisfaction and ransome, though never taken back again by the payer, no more a satisfaction for that man, not for Devils: Is too near to the nature and to being a part of the satisfaction. If one pay a summe that fully exhausts the debt of such a broken man, upon condition the broken man say Amen to the paying thereof, otherwise it shall be as not payed, he must take up the summe again, if the broken man refuse to say Amen to it, for if he take it not up again, but it be payed and fully satisfie for, and exhaust the debt, the mans debt is payed, and the Creditor in justice cannot exact one farthing from the broken man. Now nothing given to the Justice of God by way of satisfaction for the sins of unbeleevers, was every repeated or taken back again by Christ. Nay but, say they, the ransome was not payed at all for Judas, but only, upon condition that he beleeve: but he never beleeved, and therefore it was never payed for Judas. Answ. This is that we say, that Christ gave no reall ransome at all, for the sins of Judas. by way of satisfaction. But they say that there is as well a ransome payed for all the sins of Judas (sin all unbeleef excepted) to free him, in justice from eternall stroaks, as for all the sins of Peter to free him, only it is not accepted of by the Creditor, because Judas, by faith, assented not unto the bargain: But assenting or not assenting, accepting, or not accepting, that are posterior to the payment, are nothing up or down to the compleatnesse and perfection of the satisfaction made for the exhausting of Justice, for Justice receives not two satisfactions or ransomes for Judas, one upon the Crosse from Christ, another in Hell, from Judas, yea and it must follow, that reall payment was made to Justice for all the sins of Judas, upon the Crosse, and that he suffers for none of them, in Hell, but for only finall unbeleef, which is no sin against the Covenant of Works and the Justice thereof, but only and formally against the Covenant of Grace, so that as yet satisfying of
Divine Justice for sins, must be halfed and parted between Christ, and Iudas, which the Scripture teaches not. Also the Father either accepts the ransome of Christ, because it is intrinsecally, and of it self sufficiently satisfactory: or because Iudas does beleeve it is so; The latter cannot be said, for beleeving adds nothing to the intrinsecall sufficiency of the satisfaction, as not believing diminishes nothing from the sufficiency thereof; Yea and so the Fathers formall reason of accepting of the satisfaction of Christ, must be terminated upon our poor act of believing, whereas the formal ground of the acceptation thereof is the intrinsecall excellency and worth of the Sacrifice, being an offering of a sweet smelling savour to God, Eph. 5.2. And because he offered the ransome of the blood of God-man, of the Prince of life, Act. 20.28. 1 Cor. 2.8. and offered himself to God, Eph. 5.25.26. Heb. 9.14. Mat. 20.28. 1 Tim. 2.6. Rev. 1.5. nor is there any sufficiency in his death from the worth of beleeving. And the reason why he accepts it for Peter, not for another, is the election of grace.
It is true the blood is a price refuseable, but it is this way refuseable, because the Lord might have followed a Law-way with Adam, and all his sons, and have denyed to give his Son a Ransome for us, but it is not refuseable, because of any insufficiency in the Ransome. Now faith is to satisfaction as the approximation of, and the laying on of dry fewell to the fire, which is only a condition of burning, but the fire is the formall cause of burning. Yea if we speak properly faith is not so much as a condition without the which offended Justice is not satisfied, nor is it a condition, by any Scripture of the world, without the which God laid not our iniquities on Christ, for whether we beleeve or not, God laid our iniquities upon him, and made him sin for us, Isa. 53.6. 2 Cor. 5.21. Therefore, by necessity of Justice, he must accept that Ransome intrinsecally so sufficient, which did restore more glory to God, then the sins of all, for whom Christ died, took from him. Nor is it imaginable to say that any act of obedience or beleeving, can perfect the satisfaction of Christ, and make it sufficient, yea, or causatively make it ours. For God, by no necessity of Justice, but of his own free pleasure, requireth faith as a condition of our actuall reconciliation; for beside, that he might have
required any other act of obedience, as love, he might have accepted the Ransome without inquiring any act of obedience, on our part, as the Lord bestowed as calme Sea and deliverance from shipwrack, upon the Idolatrous Sea-men, upon the very act of casting Ionah in the Sea, without the intervention of any saving faith on their part; As a gracious Prince may send a pardon to free a condemned Malefactor from death, and may command that it be valid in Law for him, without the mans knowledge, and far more without his acceptance thereof, upon his knees, especially since by a speciall paction between the Father and the Son, he restored abundantly more Glory to God by suffering for all, for whom, he died, then they took from God by their sins, and that restitution was made to Justice without the interveening of any act of the creatures obedience. But the truth is, it is much to be doubted whether they, who hold such a satisfaction to be given of God, for the sins of all, Elect and Reprobate, but so as it shall not be valid in Law, nor effectuall of quiet Justice, but they must all suffer eternall vengeance, and perform personall satisfaction, in Hell, to Justice, except there interveen an act of obedience of the creature, to make it effectuall, do really and sincerely acknowledge, against Socinians, a reall satisfaction and compensation made to offended Justice by Christ: For how is it reall, and not rather scenicall and formall, which may and should be null and in vain, if the creature make it not reall, by beleeving. And especially, if God out of his grace which is absolutely free, work in us the condition of beleeving. Can God give his Son as a Ransome for us, upon condition that we beleeve, if he himself absolutely work the condition in us? They will not admit this.
God intended a Law-dispensation but for a time. 2. Adam, how he was ordained for a Law-life. 3. How predestinated to Glory in Christ, how not. 4. That the Heathens have no more Universall Grace then Devils. 5. No ground for such grace.
IT is apparent that God intended
not a Law-dispensation in
after the fall, but of his procreating of children, of the Patriarchs, of Adams dying and of his actings before the fall, the place of Paradice beings scarce well known, which sayes the Lord had a farther design to lay a side the transient Law-dispensation and to set up Christ. 2. The Lord, of purpose, gave a positive Law, forbidding eating of such a Tree, added a threatning thereunto particularly, suffered the Serpent to tempt, and forsaw what frail nature would do, that he might deal with man, in a dispensation of free grace.
Obj. Did not God ordain that Adam should have life and righteousnesse, if he should continue in obedience. Ans. That was a decree conditionall of things, (the man that does these things shall live) and showes the equitie and holinesse of the Law, but it was not a decree of persons, by which God predestinated Adam to a Law-glory, as the end, and to Law-obedience as the effectuall means leading to that end.
Q. Was not Adam chosen? Ans. Adam, according to the Lords designe, finaliter & objective was created in the state of predestination to glory, and grace in Christ as touching his person, but according to his inherent condition, he was created in a legall dispensation, which was a gracious inlet to Christ; And according to his Law-state as he represented all mankinde, he was Created as a lubrick and frail Coppie of weak nature.
Many who are such as are not chosen are Created an live under a Covenant of Works, having onely some concomitant favours of the Gospel, as the Preaching thereof. 2. Common grace, inward warnings. 3. Protections of providence and forbearance, in regard they are mixed with the Elect. The heathen cannot be said to have any inward calling to Grace and Glory, because there be some remanents of the Image of God left in them, which no more can be called universall Grace, then the same sparkles that are left in Devils can be called Gospel Grace, for they believe, There is one God and confesse the Son of God, Jam. 2. 19. Luk. 4. 34. Mark. 1. 24. Only if this be called Grace, that the nature of man is so capable of Gospel mercy, and the nature of the fallen Angels morallie not so. 2. The offer is made to them of Christ, not so to Devils, we shall not contend: Reason may seeme to say that all
should have a share of Gospel-Grace, but it may be replyed to reason, why should if seeme to be a part of the goodnesse and bounty of God to will and desire all and every one to be saved, and not to institute such a dispensation, as all and every one should actuallie be saved?
2. How should that stand. (he hath mercy on whom he will) if free will of the creature absolutely dispose of Salvation and damnation? 3. How is it that the Calling, Adoption, and the offer of mercy is restricted to few, and was confined to the Jews only of old? But we are more ready to call the Lord to a reckoning, for his dispensation of Grace to others, then to use our own, as becomes, us. 2. We cannot judge aright of God and of his goodnes, except he be God our very way. 3. It is a matter of no small difficultie to make right use of the Lords freedome of Grace, and for clay humblie to adore Sovereigntie, and not to stumble at the highnesse of his wayes, who, in these points, hath wayes and thoughts above ours, as the heavens are above the earth, Isa. 55.
It was condescension in the Lord to enter in Covenant with man. 2. Temptations in fearing we are not chosen, discovered. 3. Beings and not beings are debtors to God. 4. Self denyall required in sinlesse nature, as in sinfull, 5. Man considered three wayes.
Whither was God under an obligation, to make a Covenant with man?
Hardly can any maintain the dominion and Soveraigntie of God, and also assert an obligation, on the Lords part, of working upon the creature: The Lord is debtor to neither person nor things. He as Lord commands, but it is condescension that he commands Covenant-wayes, with promise of a reward to the obeyer. The Leviathan in strength is far above Job, he cannot command him. Job 14. 4. Will he make Berith a Covenant with thee, wilt thou take him for a servant for ever? That is, the Leviathan will not engadge as a servant to obey Iob as his master. A Covenant speaks
something of giving, and taking, work, and reward, and mutuall engagements, betwixt parties, though there be something in the Covenant between God and man, that is, not in the Covenants, of men. The rationall creatures owe suitable, that is, rationall obedience to the Creator, but God is under no obligation to give life, especially so excellent a life as a communion with God, in glory, yet he does it. What a God must he be, who will come downe and put himself in a lovely and gaining capacitie to be a Covenanting debtour to our feeble obedience, whereas he ows nothing, and to make heaven and glory so sure to us, that the heavens should sooner break and melt, like snow before the Sun, then his promise can fail.
Obj. True, but faith is fixed upon the new Covenant-promise, if I believe. Ans. Yea, but faith here is to believe, that the condition it self is promised, as well as the reward.
Obj. The condition of a new heart and of faith is promised, but not to all, not to me, but to some few chosen only. Ans. There be here a number of errors. 1. Unbelief foments proud merite, that we are to believe as much of God promised, as there is conceived, to be worth in self, and in me to fulfill the condition; But true, faith, contrare to self-unworthinesse, relyes upon the Truth of God, the excellencie of Christ, and the absolutenesse of the promise. 2. Sathan like a Sophist drawes the dispute to the weakest conclusion from the strongest, to wit, from the promise of God, that is surer then heaven to the state, against which there is a greater number of Topick Arguments, then there can be against the promise of God. As 1. What am I? 2. Am I chosen or not? So Sathan to Christ, if thou be the Son of God, command these stones to be made bread, in point of beleeving its better that faith expatiate in viewing God, Christ, the Ransome of the blood of God-Man, the depth of free grace, then upon self, and the state: in point of repenting and humble down-casting, we would read self, and our own estate. 3. Its Satan and the unbeleeving heart that would have our faiths greatnesse rising from selfs holinesse, and goodnesse. Whereas the greatest faith that Christ finds, Mat. 8. 10. looks away from self. v. 8. I am not worthy—and dwells much upon the Omnipotency of Christ in commanding diseases,
as a Centurian his Souldiers. 4. When unbelief quarrels the Lord as untrue and weak, who faints and wearies, and one that is not the Creator of the ends of the earth, it alledges only and pretends self-guiltinesse to justifie unbelief: Yet Isa. 40. 28. though God be reproached as weak, we seem to resolve all in this; our own unworthinesse, but we cannot get our faith stately enough; and the truth is here, we quarrell with God and his decrees, under pretence of this, what if he have not chosen me? and I have no right to Covenant-mercies, except I take a Law-way to earne them, by fulfilling the condition. 5. When we beleeve a conditionall promise (if I beleeve, I am saved) faith relyes not fiducially upon the (if I beleeve) or upon the condition, Its a weak pillar to a sinner to stay his unquiet heart upon, to wit, his own beleeving, but faith rests upon the connexion (if thou beleeve thou shalt be saved) and it stayes upon the connexion, as made sure by the Lord, who of grace gives the condition of beleeving, and of grace the reward conditioned, so that faith binds all the weight upon God only, even in conditionall Gospel promises. 1. Man is to be considered as a creature. 2. As such a creature, to wit, endued with reason and the Image of God, in either considerations, especially in the former all that are created, are obliged to do and suffer the will of God though they never sinned. Its not enough to say, that Sun, Moon, Trees, Herbs, Vines, Earth, Beasts, Birds, and Fishes, cannot suffer the ill of punishment, which is relative to the break of a Law, for the whole Creation is subject to vanity for our sins, Rom. 8. 20, 21. The Servant is smitten and sickened, for the Masters sake, and God may take from them what he gave them, their lives without sense of pain and dollour, for all beings, yea defects and privations are debters to the glory declarative of God, Prov. 16. 4. Rom. 11. 36. yea and no beings are under this debt. God can serve himself of nothing, yea, that there are not created, Locusts, Caterpillars, more numerous, then that all the fruits of the earth can be food to them, Preach the Glory of the Lords goodnesse to man, and what are never to be, no lesse then all things, that have futurition, or shall come to passe either absolutely or conditionally, are under the positive decree of God, else we should not owe thanks to the Lord for many
evils that never fall out, that the Lord turns away violent death, violence of men, and wilde beasts, and many possible mischiefs, contrair to Deut. 28. 11, 12. Lev. 26. 6. Psal. 34. 20. Psal. 91. 5,6,7,8. And all these beings or no beings owe themselves to God to hold forth the glory of goodnesse, wisedome, mercy, justice, &c. suppone there had never been sin: Far more now, who wants matter of meditation, or can write a book of all the pains, aikings, convulsions, pests, diseases that the Lord decreed to hold off? so that every bone, joynt, lith, hair, member, should write a Psalm Book of praises, Psal. 35. 10. All my bones shall say, Lord, Who is like unto thee? Nor can any man write his debts of this kind. But we are little affected with the negatives of mercies, except we read them upon others, and little then also; Self-pain Preacheth little to us, far more, the borrowed experience of fallen Angels, of Sodom, of the old world, &c. leaves small impression upon stony spirits. 2. Complain not, that you have not that share of grace, another hath, if ye (you think) had it, you would be as usefull to glorifie God, as they, but ye know not your self; swell not against him, that thou haft no grace, O vessell of wrath, thou owes that bit clay, and all thy wants to glorifie his Justice. 3. My sicknesse, my pain, my bands owe themselves to God, and are debtors to his glory, I, and every one of men should say, O that my pain might praise him, and my hell, and flamings of everlasting fire, might be an everlasting Psalm of the Glory of his Justice; That my sorrow could sing the Glory of so High a Lord: But we love rather that he wanted his praise, so we wanted our pain. 3. God hath made a sort of naturall Covenant with night and day. Jer. 31. 35. For all are his servants, Psal, 119. 91. that they should be faithfull to their own naturall ends to act for him, Ier. 5. 22. Ier. 31. 37. Psal. 104. 1,2,3,4. and they are more faithfull to their ends then men. Isa. 1. 3. Ier. 8.7. The oxe and the asse being more knowing to their owner, and the swallow and the cran being more discerning of their times, then men are. 2. They so keep their line, that there is more self-deniall in their actings, then in mans way: as if fire were not fire, and nature in it denied, the fire devours not the three Children, Dan. 3. 27,28 The Sun stands still, the Moons moves not, Iosh. 10. 12,13. The hungry
Lions eat not Daniel, ch. 6.22. When the Lord gives a counter-command to them, and that is a clause in the Covenant, that the Lord entered with them, that they act or no act, as he shall be pleased to speak to them, John 2.10. Isa. 50.2. Mat. 8.16. It is a most humbling Theame, that an asse is more in denying nature, and the cran and the fire, then man, yea then a renued man in some cases. 4. But if man be considered, as such a man, endued with the Image of God, and withall the Covenant be considered as such a Covenant, as is expressed in the Ten-Commandements, in which one of seven is a Sabbath to the Lord, it will be found that many positives Morall are in the Covenant of Works, that are not in naturall Covenants.
5. So man must come under a three-fold consideration.
1. As a creature.
2. As a reasonable creature.
3. As such a creature reasonable, endued with the image of God.
In the first consideration, man comes under the Covenant naturall, common to all creatures; So is Peters body carried above in the water as iron swims.
2. As a reasonable creature, he owes himself to God, to obey so far as the Law written in the heart carries him, to love God, trust in him, fear him. But this can hardly bear the name of a Covenant, except it be so called; in a large sense, nor is there any promise of life, as a reward of the work of obedience here.
3. But man being considered as indued with the Image of God, so the Holy God made with him a Covenant of life, with Commandements, though positive and Morall, yet not deduced from the Law of Nature, in the strictest sense, as to observe such a Sabbath, the seventh from the Creation, the not eating of the forbidden tree, and with a promise of such a life. And therefore though Divines, as our solid and eminent Rollock, call it a Covenant naturall, as it is contradistinguished from the supernaturall Covenant of Grace, and there is good reason so to call it; Yet when it is considered in the positives thereof, it is from the free
will of God, and though it be connaturall to man, created according to the Image of God, yet the Covenant came so from the Lords wisedom and free-will, as he might have casten it in a new and far other-frame: And it cannot be denyed, though it be most suitable to mans intire nature to love God, yet to love him so and so, by obeying the command of not eating the fruit of the Tree of Knowledge, and some other Commands, is not so connaturall, but God might have commanded the contrair, without any thing done contrair to mans nature. Yet from this it followes, no more that these are two Covenants, then that there be two Covenants of Grace, Because faith in God, and the Morall Law in an Evangelick way are therein commanded, and also some duties touching the seals by a positive Law are therein contained.
Its not written in the heart of man by nature, that GOD should promise life eternall to man, upon condition of obedience. 2. And that the debt of Justice can not tye GOD. 3. GOD punisheth not sin, by necessity of nature. 4. Nor defends he his own declarative Glory by that necessity. 5. Nothing can be given to GOD Alsufficient. 6. No meriting of the creature. 7. We should have humble thoughts of free-Grace. 8. How low thoughts of our selves. 9. Promises make no strict justice between GOD and us.
Sure, it is not repugnant to the yet innocent and intire nature of man, to know, that God may reward all such as seek and serve him, but that he must reward obedience either in the generall, or so and so, is neither written in mans heart, nor hath it any truth: For it were nothing against justice, or bounty, or any attribute of God, not to reward his creature, which is obliged to serve him, and though there be a sort of quietnesse of conscience, which is the naturall result of obedience in Adam, and of all men, yet it cannot inferre, that there is an intrinsecall connexion, ex naturârei,
between our obedience and a reward to be given of God. Therefore, nor will it be a good inference, because there is disquietnesse in the conscience, after sin, and that it is naturall to a sinner to apprehend a revenging power pursuing sin committed, that therefore it is naturall and essentiall to the Lord, to pursue sin with punishment in generall. For a naturall conscience may, and does know, that God doth freely create the world, and that he might not have created it, that he doth good freely to his creatures, and that he is not a debtor to his creatures; Will it follow by any Logick, that God creates the world by any naturall obligation? And because by force of a naturall conscience, all know that God is good and bountifull to his creatures, in giving, and doing good to them, we cannot therefore infer that actuall beneficence is so essentiall to the infinite Majesty, as he should not be God, if he did not extend that goodnesse to them. Common sense will say no more followeth, but goodnesse and bounty intrinsecall are essentiall to God, and these attributes are essentiall to him, and were from eternity in him, and are his good and bountifull nature; Though not either man, Angel, or any thing else had been created, to which he doth actually extend his goodnesse. Ergo, this actuall extension of goodnesse is not essentiall to God, so neither is the actuall punishing of sin essentiall to God, but free, though Adam apprehended God would punish his eating of the forbidden tree; Yet if he apprehended that he should not be God, if he did not punish it, his apprehension was erroneous. And this only followes that there is an intrinsecall and internall Justice in God, naturall and essentiall in God, but so that the out-goings of his Justice, the egressions are most free, and that is said by some without all reason, because the apprehensions we have naturally of God that he punisheth sin, Universales apprehensions, nequaquam sunt corum qua Deo vel adesse vel abesse possunt pro liberrimâ voluntate. Universall apprehensions, therefore they are not apprehensions of such things as may be, or not be in God, according to his free pleasure, if the apprehensions of Gods doing good to Angels, to men, to all his creatures freely, be in all by nature, and cannot be rooted out, and be universall, then these apprehensions cannot be of such things as are in God, according to his most free will, and may be in the Almighty or not be in him.
But the conclusion hath neither reason nor sense; for there are universall apprehensions in all men, and they canot be rooted out, that God does good to Angels, men, and creatures freely: Ergo, by this Logick the doing of good freely to Angels, men, and creatures is not a thing that is in God according to his free-will, and may be in the Almighty or not in him. Then the so doing must be in God essentially. 2. Then must God not be God, if he do not good freely to them. 3. Then must God not be God, except he create men, Angels, and creatures. 4. But since he is God everlasting, he must from everlasting have created men, Angels, and the creatures, and from everlasting he must punish sin; Life may be considered. 1. As life. 2. As such an excellent life, to wit, a communion with God.
In the former consideration, life is either considered as the end, or secondly as a free reward. In the former respect. To live an intellectuall life in obeying God, was to Adam so created a connaturall end, as to burn, is to fire, and to give light, to the Sunne. And God may put the respect of a reward upon any obedientiall end. But that Adam should have such an eminent life, for the reward of his obedience as a communion with God, which is farre above his obedience, is the free donation of God: nor is there any necessary connexion between Adams perfect obedience, and so high and eminent a life, nor can this Covenant, as touching such a promise, be written in his heart. God then never loved to make any Covenant, yea even that of Works, without some acts and out-goings of grace, and the hyre was grace, how is he not to be served, who loves to hyre and allure us to be happy?
Arminius saith, the reward of keeping the Covenant of Works, cannot be spirituall, nor can the punishment be spirituall, because you teach (saith he) that the obedience is naturall. Ans. It followeth not, for the reward is spirituall, yea and supernaturall from the free promise of God: It was, that God should recompence our naturall obedience, coming from connaturall principles, with so eminent a Crowne as communion with God Creator, in a life of glory. And this came from no innate proportion between a naturall work and supernaturall reward; Otherwise we must say, first that there is such an intrinsecall connexion ex natuârei between
Adams work and so high wages, as that glorious communion was,
as the Lord could not but in justice, so have rewarded his obedience, except he
would be unjust, but there is nothing in the creature, that can conclude,
limite, or determine, his will and wisdome, who is infinite. 2. It had been
nothing against justice, if the Lord had followed
3. If God, of justice, give Adam life, Adam might compell God to pay, what he oweth him, else he should be unjust: But the creature can lay no necessitie on the Creator, either to work without himself, nor can he cause him to will. 4. The proper work of merite (saith great Bradwardine) and of him that works must go before the wages, in time, or in order of nature. And if the worker receive its operation, and working for wadge from God first, and by his vertue and help continue in operation and working, he cannot condignely merit at the hand of God, but is rather more in Gods debt, after his working, then before his working, because he bountifullie receives more good from God, then before, especially, because he gives nothing proper of his own to God, but gives to God his own good; But no man first acts for God for God is the first actor and mover in every action, and motion. As that saith, Who gave first to the Lord, and it shall be recompensed him?
5. If this was yesterday just, that life eternall is due to Adam for his work before God made it just and due, then from Eternitie and before any decree of God it was just and due; Certainlie, God,
upon the same reason, was debtour, to make such a Covenant, that was just, before he made it just. And this is no Covenant of God, for God, not making the justice of the Covenant, and the just connexion between work and wadge, he cannot be the Author of the Covenant: But neither is Adam the Author of the justice, nor of the just Covenant: Upon the same ground, it was then an everlasting justice without and before God from Eternitie. Non datur justum prius primo justo.
6. If God did more for Adam, then he can recompence God for it, as the Father hath done to the Son, then he could not merit at the hand of God: But God did more to Adam in giving to him being, faculties, mind, will, affections, power, habites, his blessed Image, then Adam can never be in a condition, in which he can recompence God, or give him more annuall and usurie, in his acting of obedience, then the stock was he received in proportion. As the Son can never give the Father, in recompence, so much or the captive ransomed from death, can never give to his ransome payer, who bought him so much, as the one and the other shall no more be under an obligation, and debt of love and service to father and ransomer, then to a stranger that they never knew: Nor could Adam thus be freed of God, so as he should be owing nothing to him. If any say, God may freely forgive all this obligation and debt: To which Bradwardine Answers well: 1. The forgiving of the debt, when the debtor hath nothing to pay is a greater debt taken on. 2. God (saith he) may forgive so in regard of actuall obligation, that he is not oblidged ad aliquid faciendum sub pna peccati, to do any thing under the pain or punishment of sin, as the hireling is obleiged to work, when he hath made a Covenant to work, and so we are not oblidged to do, as much as we can for God. But in regard of habituall obligation, God cannot forgive the debt, that the reasonable creature owes to God for so he might dispence with this, that the reasonable creature owe no obedience to God, suppose he should command it, which is impossible.
They seeme therefore, with eyes of flesh, to look upon God, who say that God by necessitie of justice must punish sin, yea that the most High cannot be God, except he punish sin, and that he should
not be God, if all his Lawes imposed upon men, were only promissorie and void of all threatnings.
What? could not God have said, eat not of the tree of knowledge, for if ye eat not, your obedience shall be rewarded with life eternall, and no more? might he not have laid aside all threatning? What Scripture or reason teacheth to say, that God, if he create a reasonable creature, and under a morall dependencie, which it hath and must have of God, then must God, by necessitie of nature, punish the sinner, yea so as, if he punish not, he should not be God, nor just, but must fall from his naturall dominion, except he make penall laws, and so he should not be God, except he say to Adam (if thou eat thou shalt die) or (shalt be punished for eating) but this is not proven by one word, except this, the reasonable creature is not, nor cannot be subject to God Creator, except god punish the sinner; But that is denyed: Adam should have had a Morall dependance upon God, and God should have been God, and essentially just, if sin had never come into the World, and if God have kept Adam under a Morall Law, as he did the Elect Angels, who never felt or knew the fruit of a Morall Law broken and transgressed. And God, if he imposed any penall Law upon the Elect Angels as penall (which shall be an hard work to prove) yet had a naturall dominion over the Elect Angels, and suppose no Law, but only a rewarding and remunerative Law, had been over their heads, should God be no God, in that case? and if any deny, that God hath a perfect dominion over that Elect Angels, he is not worthy to be refuted. 2. Shew me, in all the Old or New Testament, any penall Law of active obedience as penall, imposed upon the man Christ, or where is it written, If the Man Christ sin, he shall eternally die? I tremble at such expressions: Is the Lord therefore not the Lord, and hath the Lord fallen from his naturall dominion over his Son, the Man Christ? Or (3) will any man deny, but the Lord might justly have laid upon all men and upon the Elect Angels a Law only remunerative, not penall at all, a Law only with the promise of a reward, and void of all threatning of death, first or second, or any other punishment, and yet he should have been the Lord, and had a naturall dominion over Angels, the Man Christ, and all mankind?
(3) Suppose the Lord had never imposed the Law penall forbidding the sin against the Holy Ghost, upon the Elect beleevers, nor any other penall Law, but by the vertue of the most sufficient ransome of the Blood of God payed for man, he had made them now after the fall, as the confirmed Angels, and holy as the Man Christ, and brought them so to glory, should he not have been God in that case, and should he have lost his naturall dominion over men in that case? 4. The dominion of God over men is not only in one particular, of penall Laws, it is in remunerative Laws also, in giving predeterminating influences to obey and persevere in obedience, in not leading into temptation, in hyring and alluring us to serve God, in terrifying men with examples of the Lords Judgements on others, he spared not the Angels, &c. 2 Pet. 2.4. Jud. 6. and therefore, to say, that God falls from his naturall dominion over man, and leaves off to be God, except he impose penall Laws upon men, is first an errour in Logick, à negatione speciei ad negationem generis, nulla est consequentia: If God have not a dominion over man, in one particular of penall Laws, he falls from his whole dominion naturall, in other things: It is an undue inference. 2. It cannot be but too darring to tye the blessed God-head, and his essentiall dominion over man, to only making of penall Laws: it smells of Scripturelesse boldnesse with the most High, and limits the Holy One, that he cannot be God, except he be God in our way: And saith, he hath no way to preserve his glory, but by creating a Hell: And therefore let that stand as an unproven position, since it hath no probation; The reason that is given is as weak as the weak conclusion; Though water may bear up water, yet it cannot support the earth. For 1. it saith, if man be created a reasonable creature under a Law, he may sin, intercidi potuit obedientiâ, and he may be created under a Law, with perfect morall dependence upon God Creator, as the Elect Angels and the Man Christ, and yet never sin, and yet God falls not from his dominion, and leaves not off to be God. (2.) This lookes somewhat the Arminian way, that man cannot be under the subjection of, properly so called, Morall obedience, except his will be indifferent as Adams was, to stand or fall, to run to Heaven or Hell, which indeed saith, that the most perfect obedience of Christ,
who was obedient to the death, Phil. 2.8. and delighted to do the will of God, Psal. 40.8. John 4.34. is no proper obedience, that is, perfect obedience is not proper obedience. And that obedience of Elect Angels the samplar of our obedience, Mat. 6.10. Isa. 6.2,3. Psal. 103.20. is not proper obedience. 3. Whereas it is said, if man sin, his morall dependency cannot stand, except God punish him, but so not only God shall not be God, nor have dominion over man, except he impose a penall Law upon man, but he shall not be God except he actually punish man, or his surety Christ. But the same pen saith that the out-goings of justice are free, that is to say, it is free to God to punish sin; and yet he falls from his naturall dominion over man, and leaves off to be God, if he punish not sin. But we do deny that God falls from his naturall dominion over man, though he never impose a penall Law upon him, and never punish, and desire that this may be proven, nor is it imaginable, how God by necessity of nature, must punish sin; And yet, in the way, measure, and degree of punishment, and in the time when, he can use moderation. Which is as good as to say, the fire must, by necessity of nature, burn, the Sun cast light; But the fire hath free will to burn when it pleaseth, and at this time, and not at this time; and the Sun must shine, by necessity of nature, but it is free to shine at ten hours of the day, and not at twelve, and it may shine as bright as the Sun, or as dimme as the Moon. Or God the Father loves himself, but it is free to him to love himself to day, not to morrow, and to love himself so much, not so much. And so he may say, God is so mercifull and just to day, as he may be no merciful, no just, to morrow; and God is infinitly mercifull and just, and yet he is lesse mercifull and more mercifull essentially according to his good pleasure, which are speaking contradictions. Yea this is that which misjudging Suarez saith, that the creature may do a reall injurie to God, and take away from God jus Dei ad gloriam, his right to glory, but the truth is, the creature by sin darkeneth or overcloudeth his declarative glory, but can take away no essentiall glory, nor any reall right or reall good from God, so Elihu, Job 39. 6. If thou sinnest, what dost thou against him? If thy transgressions be multiplied, what dost thou to him? To take his declarative glory from God,
is no lose to him, no more then it is lose to the Sun, that ye hinder it to shine upon the wall, when yet ye take no light from the Sun, for it shines upon an interposed body. Job 35. 8. Thy wickednesse may hurt a man as thou art, and thy righteousnesse may profite the Son of man. It is needfull (say some) that God preserve his own glory safe, but if sin be without infliction of punishment, it is impossible that he can defend his own glory. Ergo, of necessity he must punish sin. The proposition is out of controversie, for all confesse that God most preserve his own glory, but by necessity, of nature he must do so, quoniam scipsum non potest non amare. Because he cannot but love himself, and he hath said, my glory will I not give to another.
To this is answered, the glory internall, eternall, and essentiall to God, the Lord must defend and love as he loves himself, by necessity of nature; and if any say that the egressions and out-goings of God to defend and love his own essentiall Glory, and his own holy Nature, so as he may use moderation in the degrees and time of these, and he may love himself and his own essentiall glory, more or lesse, and touching the time, he may delay to love himself, and he may love himself and his own essentiall glory to morrow, not to day, As the Author sayes, the out-goings of revenging justice are moderated in punishing; he speaks wonders and things unworthy of God. The place, Isa. 42. speaks not of this glory, for no idol, no creature, can more take away from the Almighty this essentiall glory of God, nor his blessed Nature can cease to be, but there is a glory declarative of pardoning mercie, as well, as of revenging justice; It must be a carnall conception and a new dream, that God by necessity of nature, loves himself as cloathed with revenging justice, or as just, and his own glory of revenging justice, but that God loves himself as mercifull and ready to forgive, or his own glory of pardoning mercie freely, and by no necessity of nature: Which the Author must say, for the place, Isa. 45. should otherwise bear this sense, my glory of revenging justice only, I will not give to Idol gods and creatures. But the place of Isa. ch. 42.8. should not conclude, but they might ascribe the glory of salvation and mercifull deliverances and victories over Judah, the Temple, the Sanctuary to their idol gods, the contrair where of is intended
by the Prophet; But if the Lord, by necessity of nature,
love his declarative glory, as he loves
himself, then he must love glory of one attribute, as well as of another,
and so as his Nature, not freedome or soveraignty puts him to it, to defend the
glory of justice, when man sins; Yea so as he cannot be God and essentially
just, except he vindicat his glory of justice; Yea so he must love the glory of
saving and pardoning mercy, as himself, for the one glory is no lesse
essentiall to God (if it be
essentiall at all) then the other. And by this means, God, by necessity of nature, to preserve safe the glory of saving
mercie, must send his Son, and by the like necessity, by which he loves
himself, he must redeem man; Now the Lord does not love himself, of free grace,
for he every way, for the infinite excellency of his Nature is love-worthy, and
there is no interveening of freedome, of free grace, or soveraignty in the
Lords loving of himself and his own essentiall glory. There is a declarative
glory, which is not essentiall to God,
of which the Scripture, Prov. 16. 4. The Lord made all things for himself, that
is, for his glory, to be declared. Eph. 1.6. He hath chosen us to the praise of the glory of his grace, V. 11. In
Christ we have obtained an inheritance. 12. That we should be to the praise of his glory.
of God is not
transferred to Idol gods and creatures; The Scriptures cry the contrare. When
ever Idolatrie is committed, Isa. 40.
and 41. Isa. 46.
his own Glory, defend his own Glory, then, by necessitie
of nature he must defend the Glory of all his Attributes, of Holinesse,
Graciousnesse, Greatnesse, Omnipotencie, Eternitie, Infinite knowledge, &c. that the Glory of not one of
these be taken from him by sin: And because the Lord maketh, and worketh all, that he doth without himself, in the
creature, for his own Glory. Prov. 16.
4. Rev. 4. 11. Rom. 11. 36. in all that he doth, he must by necessitie of nature
love his own Glory, quoniam seipsum non
potest non amare, because he loves himself. Ergo, by this ground the Lord doth nothing freely without himself,
and so the Lord makes not the rain to fall, the tree to bud, the sea to ebbe,
the wind to blow, the fowls to flee, the fishes to swim, for the declaration of
the Glory of his goodnesse, or his power, or his mercy, his holinesse, with any
freedome, but all these he must do for Glory to himself by necessitie of
nature, which Glory he loves as himself, for his Glory in all the doth without,
the loveth by necessitie of nature, as he loves himself saith the Author. And
therefore as he cannot preserve the Glory of his Justice, but by punishing sin,
and that by necessitie of nature, so he cannot preserve the Glory of the rest
of all his Attributes (which Glory also he loves as himself) but by doing all
without himself in like maner by necessitie of nature, which utterly destroyes
the libertie and freedome of God in
all his works of Providence and Creation, and so God shall be a naturall agent in all his works without himself, not
a free agent in Creating and Redeeming. 4. The Scripture sayes, he works all things according to the
counsell of his will, for his Glory, and therefore he intends not his own
declarative Glory as he loves himself: For by necessitie of nature he loves
himself, and cannot but love himself. But he might, if so it had pleased him,
never have intended to shew forth his own Glory, and does not show it forth by
necessitie of nature as he loves himself. Yea he might never have created the
world, never have acted without himself: For have he was sufficient within
himself and stood in need of no declarative Glory: Gen. 17. 1. Acts 17. 25.
5. Yea if by necessitie of Justice, God
cannot but punish sin, especially this justice shall
no other, should die for sin: for all these. Thou shalt destroy all the workers of iniquitie. Thou art of purer eyes then that thou can behold iniquitie, and the like, are expressions of a pure legall proceeding in the Lord, against such as are out of Christ, under the Law, not under the Gospel, to wit, the workers of iniquity whom the Lord in justice shall punish in their person, not in their surety. And if there be such a connexion objective ex naturârei, between sin and punishment, it must be between punishment and the very person and none other, but the same that sinned: For among men this is justice. Noxa sequitur caput, so that by necessitie of nature, God shall not be God, nor essentially just, if he punish not eternally Adam and all mankinde in their own persons, and so by necessitie of justice, he cannot punish Christ; And it cannot be denyed but there is a dispensation of free Grace, and that it is no act of Justice but of Grace, that God make Christ sin, i.e. a sacrifice for sin for us, 2 Cor. 5. 21. And that the Lord laid upon him the iniquities of us all, Isa. 53. 6. and made him our surety. Nor let any man object, how could God make Christ a propitiation for sin to declare his righteousnesse? Or how could such justice, by that action be debarred? since justice did not exact such an action: If without violation of justice it might have been omitted, if God should have been infinitely just from Eternitie, if he had done no such thing? Shall a Prince get himself glory in the name of justice, by doing that which, by his absolute Soveraignety, he may leave undone without hurt of justice. It is Answered, this is to measure God by mortall men: Shall an earthly father freely for no reall good to himself beget hundreds of children, when he needs not, and yet he foresees the largest number of them shall perish eternally, and the eldest must die and be made a curse, to save the rest. The Lord punished Christ for us to declare the glory of his Justice in punishing sin in his own Son, who was the sinner by imputation, for out of the depth of infinite wisedome, the Lord freely imposes a law upon his creatures: He might have imposed no such law under such a punishment. By no necessity of nature did the Lord threaten death, for the eating the fruit of that tree, prove, that God should not have been God except the had threatned death for the eating of that fruit, and except he had punished
that eating with death, either to be inflicted upon the eater or his surety. Quid heres? Prove that by the Word of God, it is sin to eat, when God forbids; but the Lords soul hates sin. True, but does the Lords soul hate sin naturally, as he loves himself and by necessity of his essentiall justice as contradistinguished from his immutabilitie, and his truth and faithfulnesse, according to which attributes, he decreed and said, that the soul that sins shall die, and (he that eats shall die) and he cannot change, nor alter, what he hath decreed, and cannot but be true in his threatnings. But the Question is, whether (laying aside the respect of Gods unchangeablenesse and truth) there be such a connexion internall, between eating and dying, or between eating forbidden of God, and punishment, as God cannot be equally and essentially just, nor can he be God, except he punish forbidden eating; for sure eating of that fruit, is not of its nature, sin, but it is sin, from the only forbidding will of God, for the Lord had been no lesse essentially just, had he commanded Adam to eat of the Tree of Knowledge. Ergo, it is punished from the forbidding will of God, for say that to be punishable or to be punished be essentiall to sin, if eating of such fruit be sin from the forbidding will of God, the essence thereof must be from the same forbidding will, then must it follow that God hates not all sin, by necessity of nature; And that he hates such eating only conditionally, if he forbid it; but he from his meer free will, did forbid it. So the Question shall not be, whether God in justice, punished Christ, and made him a propitiation to declare his justice, but what the relative justice ad extra is, by which God punisheth sin, and whether God should leave off to be God (hallowed be his high Name) if he should not make first penall Laws to threaten all sin with punishment. 2. Whether he should not be God, if he should not punish all sin, even the eating of the forbidden tree. 3. What can be said that is more weak and watrie, to enervat the glory of free Grace, then to confound the Glory of Gods Justice in giving Christ to die for sinners, and this glory as manifested and declared. For sure the manifestation of that glory is a work of free Grace, and most free, if God do any thing freely, he must freely, and by no necessity of Justice, Mercy, Omnipotency, Patience, Grace, &c. manifest the glory of all
these to men Angels, and these attributes and the internall splendor, beauty, or (to speak so) the fundamentall glory of all the attributes of God is essentiall to God, and his very Nature. And they deny the Lord, who teach that any attributes or such glory are in God freely or contingently (if I durst so speak) for then might we say, these may go and come, ebbe and flow, in the Lord, and he should be God, though Mercy, Omnipotency, Gloriousnesse, Graciousnesse, were now and then wanting in him, as he punishes not alway, and yet he is eternally just, he saves not alwayes, and yet he is eternally mighty to save, and abundant in compassions, but as to the manifestation of Power, Mercy, Justice, that is freely in God: He sent his Son, and gave his Son to death for us, out of love, John 3. 16. But it is against common sense, to infer, Ergo, God sent his Son, by necessity of love, and mercy, and free Grace. So that he should not have been infinitly loving, mercifull, gracious, if he had never sent him. And it is as poor Logick to say, because of grace and free-love he sent his Son, and so might not have sent him, as to say he loved where there was no need, & it is in vain to shew the glory of Justice (saith the Author) when God can take away sin, out of free pleasure, and why should he expose his Son to shame, death, and a curse, whereas he might have taken away sin freely, because it is his pleasure? This is the very things that Socinians say, there is no need of blood, and satisfaction by blood, if God out of his absolute Soveraignty can take sin away without blood, and so there was no need of reall satisfaction; This is against the Holy Ghost, and we may hear it. All the Scriptures cryes that out of free grace the Lord sent his Son, and delivered him to death; By the grace of God He tasted death for every man, Heb. 2.9. Shall we infer there was then no necessity that he should die? It is safest to say the only wise God decreed that sin should be. 2. That the glory of his Justice should appear in taking away sin, not in our way, but in the way of God, to wit, in a way of justice, of mercy, of free grace, in incomparable love, of mighty power; and in all these so acts the Lord as he should not leave off to be the Lord, but acts most freely, though he had not taken that course. But far be it from the godly not to adore him in this, as the admirable way beyond the thoughts of men and Angels.
It were safest to draw holy practises by way of use from this. In all pactions between the Lord and man, even in a Law-Conant there is some out-breakings of Grace. Its true, there was no Gospel-Grace, that is a fruit of Christs merite in this Covenant. But yet if grace be taken for undeserved goodnesse: There are these respects of grace. 1. That God might have given to Adam something inferiour to the glorious Image of God, that consists in true righteousnesse, knowledge of God, and holinesse, Gen 1.26. Eph. 4.24. Col. 3.10. It was a rich enough stock, this holy Image to be so badly guided. And who looks spiritually to their receipts? Its either too much of grace and holinesse that another hath, and too little that I have, so arises virtuall sighing and grudging at the dispensation. Or 2. a swelling that it is so much, as if it were not receiving. I am holier then thou, Isa. 65. 5. a miskenning of him that makes me to differ, 1 Cor. 4.7. A blecking of others, Luk. 18.11. A secret quarrelling at God as too strick and hard in his reckoning, Mat. 25.24. And what pride is this, because I am a meer patient under gifted holinesse, to usurpe it as mine own? As if a horse should kick and fling, because he wears a borrowed sadle of silk for a day.
2. Being and dominion over the creatures is of undeserved goodnesse. Who looks to a borrowed body and a borrowed soul, yea and to self, and to that which is called I, as to a thing that is freely gifted? So that though thou be in an high opinion of self, self is self, and what it is, from God. And when thou rides, whence is it that I am the rider, and the wearied horse the carrier, but from God? 3. The Covenant of Works it self, that God out of Soveraignty does not command, is undeserved condescending; that God bargains for hire, do this and live, whereas he may bide a Soveraign Law-giver and charge and command us, is overcoming goodnesse. Law is honeyed with love, and hire, it is mercy that for our penny of obedience, so rich a wadge as communion with God is given. 4. The influences to acts of obedience, come under a twofold consideration. 1. As congruous and suitable concurrences of God to Adams acts of obedience: And so they were free gifts to Adam not promised, as we shall hear in the New Covenant. 2. As such influences by which the standing Elect Angels (who
were under this Covenant as well as Adam) were differenced from the Angels that fell, and were confirmed that they should not fall, in this latter respect. Absolute Soveraignty shines in Adams fall, so if a Sparrow cannot stir its wing without God, Mat. 10.29. nor a hair fall from our head, ver. 30. far lesse could Adam fall, and all his, without a singular providence; And farre lesse could Adam go on and act without influences from God. And if strong Adam and upright, created in holinesse, could not then stand his alone; Shall our clay legs now under the fall bear us up? What Godly trembling is required in us? 5. The gift of Prophesie, Gen. 2.23. seems to be freely given, besides the Image of God, and Adams knowledge, Gen. 1.19. of every living creature, according to their nature may be proven, but it appears to be naturall, and he is a lamentable example to us of abusing the Image of God, and good gifts; But no habite without the continued actings of God can keep us in a course of obedience: There is no ground to make habits of grace our confidence. 3. There can be no giving and taking between the creature and the Creator. Elihu pleads well for him, Job 35.7. If thou be righteous what gives thou to him? Or what receiveth he of thy hand, v.1. Thy wickednesse may hurt a man, as thou art, and thy righteousnesse may profite the Son of man. Job 22.2. Can a man be profitable unto God, as he that is wise may be profitable to himself? Is it pleasure to the Almighty that thou are righteous? Or is it a gain to him that thou makest thy Wayes perfect? So Eliphaz. And David, Psal. 16.2. My goodnesse extendeth not to thee. Acts 17.25: Neither is the Lord worshipped with mens hands, nor with their spirits: as if he needed any thing, seeing he giveth to all life & breath and all things. What then is the glory of the creatures obedience to him? It is some shining of the excellency of God upon man and Angels, from the works of God, and our obedience to him. But suppose there were no creature to pay the rent of this glory to him, is the Lord a loser therefore? Hath he need of our songs of glory? Or that creatures should be Heraulds of his praise? Or needs he the workmanship or structure of Heaven, Sun and Moon to be a Printed Book to spell and sound his glory? If he need not the Book (as he needeth nothing created. Who sayeth I am the Lord Al-sufficient)
he needs not one letter, nor any sense of the Contents of the Chapters of that Book. There is a secret carnall notion of God in us, when we act and suffer for God, that brings a false peace, and some calmes of mind, we have pleased him once, and beside that peace, a scumme and a froath smoakes up unsensible in the heart, we are profitable to God, it would be the worse with him, if he wanted our prayers and service: but had the Lord any missing of Heaven and of Angels and Men, in these infinite and innumerable ages of duration, that went before any created being? When he was upon these infinite and self-delighting thoughts, solacing himself in that infinite substantial fairenesse and love his Son Christ, Prov. 8.89.30. (2.) You can give nothing to God Creator of all, but it must be either an uncreated God-head, but he who perfectly possesseth himself, will not thank you for that, or your gift most be a created thing: But how wide is his universall dominion? can you give to one that, of which he was absolute Lord before? all the Roses are his, all the Vineyards, all the Mountains, he is the owner of the South and the North, of the East and the West, and infinite millions of possible Worlds, beyond what Angels and all Angels can number, for eternitie of ages, are in the bosome of his vaste Omnipotencie; He can create them if hee will.
And what ye give to another, it
was out of his dominion, but all things are in his dominion, for who spoiled
him of what he had? David blessed the
Lord, when the people gave for the
and infinitenesse of God. Giving is an adding to him, to whom we give. But nothing can be added to him, for thine is the greatnesse, the power, and the majestie. 3. Nothing can be given to him who is universall and full Lord and Possessour of heaven and earth, and all things therein, for all that is in the heaven &c. are thine. 4. Nothing can be given to him, who is so Lord, that he is exalted as Head, Prince and King, above all created Kings, and their dominions over their own. 5. But all the goods of the Subjects are the Princes, or the Commonwealths. The Jurists distinguish as the Schoolman Theod. Smising, Tom. 1. de Deo, tractat. 3. disp. 4.9.5. fig. 65. a two-fold jus, jus altum & jus bassum: The Prince and Commonwealth, have a sort of eminent right to the goods of the Subjects, to dispose of them for the publick good, as they may demolish a castle belonging to a private man in the frontiers of the enemies land, because it hurts the country, and may be better made use of by enemies against them for the countrey; And they may compell him to sell it, but this hinders not, but every Subject hath a dominion and right to his own goods, to use them at his pleasure, which the Prince cannot do. Ahab the King hath no right nor dominion over the vineyard of Naboth to compell him to sell it or give it against his will to his Prince; For the earthly Prince, may the man himself, the just Proprietor before men cannot bear that, so as it may be said of God, vers. 12. both riches and honour come of thee, and thou reignest over all: For God created the being of gold and of every thing, that we can give to God, which no earthly Prince can do.
6. Nothing can be given to him, in whose hand is power and might, and to make great and to give strength: For 1. Riches and things we give are of him. 2. Power, might and strength to give, either Physicall, to bear a burden to his house: Or, 2. Morall, a willing mind and heart to give is in his hand: Or, 3. A mixt power, the being of the act of giving is his. v. 7. Of thine own we give thee. Can we give to any that which is his own already? Can ye give to a Crowned King over such a Kingdom his own Crown? Can ye give to the righteous owner of his own land, his own Garden, and his own vineyard, in gift? but every being created is the Lords.
8. Saith David, v.15. We are strangers before thee, and sojourners as all our fathers were: And that saith, the Lord is the only Heritor, and we but Tennents at will, and strangers both fathers and sons, though for five hundreth or a thousand years fathers and sons have lineally and in heritage before men possessed such lands: yet before thee (saith he) we and our fathers have but Tennentright, and are strangers from thee. And what can a meer stranger to life and being give to the just Heritor and Lord of life and being?
9. And our dayes (saith David) on the earth are as a shadow, and there is none abiding life, and being is a shadow of being, and God is the only first excellent being: and suppose we should give life and being to and for him, it is but a borrowed shadow that we give him; And we are not lords of our own being, we have not absolute right over our selves to give our selves to him. If Doeg will not give himself to God, and act for God, Psal. 51.2. God shall take thee away and pluck thee out of thy dwelling place, and root thee out of the land of the living. Job 27.21. the east wind of God carrieth him away, and as a storm hurleth him out of his place. Ye shall bestow life and being worse then upon God. God shall make morter of thee, O fool! who makes a god of borrowed I, great I and poor Nothing-self: Nay if there be a Pronoun in thee O let it be this: Oh if my separation from Christ and the blotting of my name out of the Book of Life, and my heaven might be a foot-stool to heighten the glory, the high glory of the Lord in the salvation of many. 2. This Pronoun self and mine is a proud usurper against God. Was he not an Atheist or a churle, and his name folly, who said, 1 Sam. 25.11. and breathed out so many my's? Shall I take my bread and my waters, and my flesh which I killed for my shearers, and give it to men whom I know not whence they be? And he was as madde a fool who thus speaks, Isa. 10.13. By the strength of my hand have I done it, and by my wisdom, for I am prudent: & I removed the bounds of the people —14. And my hand hath found as a nest the riches of the people, and as one gathereth eggs that are left, so have I gathered all the earth, and there was none that moved the wing, or opened the mouth, or peeped. This is the fool-axe boasting against him that heweth with it. And another fool said: Make an agreement with me by a present, and
come out to me, Isa. 36.16. And this mad-nothing is above God, chap. 37.10. Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee. The Tyrant of Egypt, the great Dragon that lyeth in the midst of the river said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for my self, Ezek. 29.3. God made the Sea and all the Rivers. There be three Pronouns in the mouth of another proud Monarch, Dan. 4.30. And the King spake and said, Is not this great Babylon that I have built for the house of the Kingdom, by the might of my power and the honour of my Majesty? So soon as there falls from the great Lord of being a chip or shadow of created being, especially where being is rationall and under a Law, there follows and results (the Lord withdrawing) a proud supposed I and a vain conceit of self, and a dream of God-head comes in with borrowed being; And therefore created sinlesse self is to be denyed. Adam denyed not himself and thought in his sick imagination he should be like God knowing good and evill, Gen. 3. Christ the more excellent Adam pleased not that noble self, Rom. 15.3. [foreign] He denyed himself as man, as a gracious meer man, to be God or more then a man. And this self deniall is in elect Angels, who blush and are sinlesly ashamed of self, and cover their faces with wings before shining Infinitnesse of Glory, and proclaim him thrice Holy, holy, holy, Isa. 6.2,3. And who knowes not we owne grace as our own? my prayers my faith, my holiness, my tears, as if grace had a relish from self, not from God: but Paul, 1 Cor. 15.10. Not I, but the grace of God (not my grace in me) that was with me, [foreign]
4. But is there no paction between GOD and the creature? Surely we must say that the covenant between GOD and Adam is of another nature, yea and promises also, then these that are between man and man; for there is proper giving and taking betwixt the creature. 2. The proper covenants between man and man require that both parties be free and independent one of another, there may interveen a jus, a right and a debt upon the promissor to him to whom the promise is made. Omne promissum ex ore fidelicadit in debitum. Jurists say there is no proper binding Covenants between the father and the son, the lord and the servant; for the son and the servant are not lords of themselves nor sui juris.
The father by no paction can remove the foundation of the debt of nature that the son oweth to the father: for impossible it is, but if such a man be son to such a man, but he owe to his father as to an instrument, quod sit & vivat, being and living, and the son can not satisfie by paying the father for that summe, and the father can not cancell the band nor give him an acquittance. Far lesse can any recompence the Lord for life and being. The fallen Angels and damned in hell and all wicked men are in the Lords Compt-book everlasting debters to him for being. But God who is more then a Father (to whom men are but painted fathers) may thus farre loose the bond, as he may command the son to sacrifice the father, as well as once he commanded the father Abraham to offer up his son to God. But God cannot resigne his right that he hath over the creature to a creature, because he cannot leave off to be Creator, and so cannot lay aside or make over Creator-right, jus Creator is, to any. 2. Say that a creature had a jus or right over the Creator, it is either an uncreated right or a created right, so to pursue God by Law, as to cause him do him justice; it cannot be an uncreated right; for that were near to blasphemie: For no created head can bear the royall Crown of the King of Ages. If it be a created right, this created right must be under the dominion of him who is universall Lord of all: then may the Lord make use of it at his pleasure; then may not the man make use of it at his pleasure: for an absolute dominion of one and the same thing cannot be in the hands of two absolute Lords, who may have contradictory desires concerning the same thing: such as the holy Lord and sinfull men often are. Let us correct the bold pleadings and the daring charges that our vain hearts put upon the Lord: Why dost thou strive against him (saith Elihu, Job 33.13.) for he gives not account of any of his matters? Men dare say, when they are under the vengeance of ordinary sufferings, The wayes of the Lord are not equal, Ezek. 33.10. If our transgressions and our sins be upon us, and we pine away in them, how shall we then live? But upon whom should sins and transgressions and the punishment thereof be, if not upon the carcases of the Authors? Will ye raise letters to summond him? Where is the judge? Where is the Tribunall? But he promised so and so; But this is not the Question of strict justice:
that saith something against the veracity and faithfulnesse of God, but nothing against the justice. But neither doth a promise as a promise raise a plea of unjustice against the holy and glorious Lord, suppose he should not fulfill his promise. For 1. A paction by promise creats no equality of justice between thing and thing, between wage and work: otherwise he that is called to the Vineyard, and labours from the third hour, hath a just plea, for he should have more wages then a penny, which he gets who labours but one hour. But the Lord makes not the equality or proportion between much labouring for many hours, and the quantity and degree of the wage his rule. But the Lord pleads the free Covenant for his standing rule. Mat. 20.13. Friend, I do thee no worng: didst thou not agree with me for a penny? And vers. 15. Is it not lawfull for me to do what I will with mine own? Hence read our sickly queroulus nature. 1. Naturally we argue from much working, and would conclude God, much running, long sweating, and pains in keeping the Covenant of Works should binde God, except he be unjust, to give me as many ounces and pound weights of Glory everlasting, as I have fasted moments, and told over prayers upon beads, and uttered sighs: Wherefore have we fasted and thou seest not? We work and keep the Covenant of Works, but God payes us not our wage. Though it be a doubt to me, if the Covenant of Works had stooden, and Adam and all his had fulfilled it perfectly; if the Lord should weigh in an even ballance, by ounce weights, our poor labour, and great reward of Glory, for had he entered such a market, the losse had been ours; we could not have obtained life eternall that way, for our stock of time working should have dryed up. The vertue of justice stands in the equality of that which is given and received. Now there is a two-fold equality, one rei ad rem between thing and thing, ane Arithmetick justice, so many ounces of naturall actings, and the same number of ounces of grace and glory: This commutative justice is not in God, as the soundest and learned'st School-men teach. There is another justice of proportion duarum rerum ad duas alias res, of two things proportionally answering to two things, distributive justice is this, and it keeps a Geometricall proportion, Augustine with Scripture saith, God is become our debter
not by receiving any thing from us, but by promising what he pleaseth.
2. It follows from the Parable, that Gods bargaining with us depends not upon the equality between thing and thing, the work and the wage; But upon his own free pleasure of disposing of his own: And it is the froathinesse of our nature to judge the penny of Glory, that we get by labouring to be our own, whereas after the promise, and after we have fulfilled the condition, it is not ours, but Gods, and he calls it his own, and it is to be disposed on by the Lords free-grace. Friend, may not I do with mine own, what I please? Mat. 20.15. 2. No promise as a promise can give us a proper right, by way of strict justice, to plead with God. 1. A promise of grace is a free promise, and no man can say, because God promises the new heart to most undeserving men, that are of a stony heart, and doe profane his holy name, amongst the Gentiles, that therefore it is just by condignitie of the thing, that a new heart should be given to them, that are foolish, disobedient, and serving diverse lusts. The farrest that hard faced Jesuits go in this, is to tell us of the poor penny of the merit of congruity, for the right weight of the summe and thousands of saving grace which Papists have refused as ashamed thereof.
3. If a promise as a promise should make an equalitie between one thing and another, and so lay a band of strict commutative justice upon God, then should every promise do the like, quod convenit [foreign] convenit [foreign], but that cannot be said: For then if God should promise glory of ten thousand millions of degrees above the glory that Angels and men now injoy, for speaking one good word, that should be a free promise, but that promise should not make an equality between so hudge and rich a reward of glory, and so hungry and poor a work as the speaking of a good word, so as God should fail of justice, if he should deny a reward so great, for so small a work: For the denying thereof should be against the veracitie and faithfulnesse of God, if he should not fulfill his promise, but he should not fail against strict justice either in not rewarding the work with a condigne reward, or in not giving to the man that spake the good word his own. For there is no just equality between work and wage here. Nor can ever so feckless
a work, or all the works of men and Angels, make the glory of life everlasting our own. For glory remains ever the proper gift of God, and under his dominion.
4. A promise is, by order of time or nature, latter and posterior to the good thing promised, as words of truth are latter to things, and things have the same valor and worth, before and after the promise, yea if one promise to give for a plot of ground, a summe of money of value, five hundred times above the worth of that plot of ground, that promise can not make the unequall and unjust price to be a just and equall price. Even so the promise of God to give eternall life to the obedience of Adam can make no equality of strict justice between the reward and the wage; For the reward promised for the wages is equall and just before the promise and ex naturâ rei; and so must lay bands on the Lord, so as he cannot do contrair unto it, which is against all reason.
And who gave first to the Lord, and it shall be recompensed to him, and he that gave first to him, man or Angel, must give his own (or then it is no giving) which he received not from God, either created being, or gift, or work (for any uncreated gift none can give to him) as is said. 2. What is given is amongst the all things that are of him, as the efficient, and to him, as the last end, and through him, as the conserver of all, and so can be no gift to him, Rom 11.36.
And what God of free goodnesse, decrees to do, that he may decree not to do; and things falling under his decree, are not necessary, he cannot decree that man should be a reasonable creature, for it involves a contradiction to be a man, and not to be a reasonable creature. But no shadow of contradiction there is for the Lord to forbid to eat; and to forbid to eat under a punishment: And the not created world (it being from eternity nothing and a non ens) could not have any jus or right to plead that God would stand to what he decreed, and give being and create a world, for if the Lord should not give being to it, and-create what he had decreed from eternity to create, he should fail against his own unchangeable Nature, but should do no unjustice to an uncreated world, except we say God should be unjust, if he had not created the world: For being of justice is due to the world, and God refuses
to pay the debt of being to the uncreated world, which is non-sense. And upon the same ground, if he should annihilat the world or take away life from living things, he should be unjust; It is safer therefore to say that God oweth the creature nothing, but we are his debtors, for service and praises, while we have any being.
4. Use. If God, of his free will, so placed Adam to reward his obedience: We think hard to serve God for wages, and to be placed in a condition of obedience. Evah, and we with her, sucking the same milk, thirst after such lawlesse Independency to be from ( Gen. 3.5,6.) under God; Whereas Adam and Angel -courtiers that have wings to obey, and the Noble and High Heir who learned obedience through the things he suffered were in this condition, and Christ a King in the shape of a Servant was obedient to death, to the death of the Crosse, Phil. 2. Hence, to weary of submitting to God, speaks much unnaturall pride, yea will not be under God. 2. There is little of Christ in such, for it was life to Christ and meat and drink, Psal. 40.8. Heb. 10.8. John 4.34. Act. 10.38. to obey, and it is the Angels life, Jsa. 6.2,3. Psal. 103.20. Rev. 4.8. and they are neer him, who both at once serve and Raigne, Rev. 22.3,5. much delight to obey, speak much of God in the heart. Tyre not of your Master; examine more, untowardnesse to pray, to confer, to give, &c. if it be not a cause of deadness and be not a way of backsliding.
5. Use. If creatures keep their Covenant-naturall with God, shal not the oxe, the cran, Isa. 1.3. Jer. 8.7. the asse, 2 Pet. 2. 16. who never had a design of rebellion, depon against us in Judgement? Ah! what an unnaturall policie, the first evill wit of him that sinned from the beginning, John 8.44. and whom we follow at the heels, it is to please our own wit, in Covenant breaking. Such as are sick of love for their own wylie time-serving custome; If all naturall men in their death bed damne not this folly, aske them and they shall speak.
6. Use. If God Covenant with us for hyre, when his absolutenesse may bear him to command, how sinfully soft are our spirits, and weak is reason, that is broken with a straw, when an apple conquers Evahs eye and heart? Talents of Silver, and a wedge of
Gold Achan, and Gehazi; A drink of water, if not at hand, in time of thirst, make the people murmure against God; the more sanctified, defecat and spirituall reason be, the farther it is above that which cursheth Balaam and Judas; The first heavens motion, the primum mobile, which draws all the rest, must be the most excellent, and the moving power must be most spirituall; its neither heavinesse which is in stones or clay, nor lightnesse in the aire and fire, but a more heavenly force, which throws about that body, so the motions of sanctified reason which is sweyed and driven by no Argument, but from eternity, communion with God, a Kingdom above time, must be most spirituall. The dogge is moved with a bone, the oxe with hay.
7. If no law and poor obedience
of ours can buy a communion with God,
let us examine the peace that flowes from obedience; Its purer and more solid
peace, that flowes from Justification, and more immediatly removes the warre
between God and us, Rom. 5. 1. and comes by a purer and
nearer emanation from God and from
the ransome of Redemption that is in Christ, then that which flowes from
created acts of inherent holinesse. (2.) Our first
Lord, or Father and Husband, so the word) to the righteousness of God. When (I) (self) or nature meets with working, yea with grace often, there followes some loftinesse, except it be humbled and mortified (I) which can weep and say. Lord what am I?
What place death hath in the Covenant. 2. What such as Cain and Judas are to do in their desperate state. 3. And why the LORD is no where called the GOD of Adam.
Q. What room hath death in the Covenant?
A. Death hath room in the broken Covenant of Works, as the Pursevant and Sergeant of revenging justice. Hence deaths reign. [I must die whether I will or not] Unwillingnesse to die and bondage through fear of death is the Law-sting in death, from which Christ hath delivered us, Heb. 2. 15. Original sin and death came and entred the world by the Covenant of Works. The Covenant of Grace made not death, but found it in the world, Christ made of an old enemy death a new servant: its now the Kings ferry-boat to carry the children over the water. Its a sutable condition to a spirituall state to die being sent for, not legally summon'd, and to die, because I desire to be dissolved. Ph. 1. 23. not because I must. And better it is to summon our selves then to be summoned. Though we love heaven too much as a place of pleasure, rather then a place of holinesse, yet most men would wish a better causey to it then to sleep through the cold grave or a dark hole in the earth.
Q. What room hath life in the Covenant? Ans. The Administration of the Law-Covenant is first habituall holinesse of works, and then a crown. The Administration of grace is first faith and a title to Christ our life and hope of glory, and then habituall holinesse, begun here and perfected hereafter. The Gospel-life is both a reward and a duty of praising and loving eternally in place of all the ten Commands, yea of Law and Gospel. The Law-life
(for ought that is revealed) is a reward to be purchased by our legall obedience.
Q. If Adam in the intervall betwixt his fall and the publishing of the blessed Seed, was not to despaire, but to rely upon God as mighty to save; What should such as Judas or Cain do?
A. The conscience of Cain and of despairers, being no authentick Bible nor Judge, which can carry the controversie between them and God, so long as they are in the way, or are viators, the Gospel treaty betwixt them and Christ yet standing and not broken off upon the part of Christ, they are to cherrish and hold up the Treaty, and (as it were) to force speech out of Christ, and to pursue the news of an offered salvation. 2. There is no Spirit of God that suggests to them despaire, and bids them write themselves in the black roll of Reprobates, for though they beleeve hell, as the Devils haply beleeve there is a God, yet they blow the coals of that hellish furnace, and kindle a fire before night. 3. They being under the Law of Nature, are to rely on infinite mercy able to save. Their witty darknesse of unbeleef faith they beleeve, but they hate mercy in the generall toward others, as to themselves. 2. For a doubting child of God, because the light of evidence (which to them, in that case is dimme) comes nearer to the naturall light of reason, then to spirituall light, therefore, faith must be set on work to act as faith, and faith acts most strongly when reason is weakest. Naturall causes work more strongly under opposition, the fire burns most vehemently in winter frost, and the internall heat of the body is most mighty for concoction, when the coldness of the air is most piercing without, faith sees God most piercingly at midnight in Job, when rottennesse and deadness speaks the contrair, Job 19. I know surely (so the word, Exod. 8.1. Psal. 31.8. that my Redeemer lives. Isa. 50.10. He that walks in darknesse, and hath no light (of evidence) let him trust on the Name of the Lord, and let him stay himself upon his God, Rom. 4.19,20. (2.) There is a peece of unseen wilfulnesse in unbeleef, and two refusalls in it, as we see in Thomas, Joh. 20.25. as there is a masse of sanctified will required in sincere faith, Rom. 10.9,10. Mark. 9.24. and so resistance must be made to that blind impulsion of will in unbeleef, by which we please our selves in doubling our doubting.
(3.) Should the commanding of killing the Son, Gen. 22.2. seem to contradict the whole Gospel of the promised Seed, Gen. 25. 4. yet knowing both to come from God, Abraham did well to leave the supposed contradiction to be solved by God, and beleeve both as we are to beleeve food, in no food, and in famine.
Q. Where was there a word that God was Adams God? Ans. Not directly. For 1. that Covenant was like Letter of the King raised to such a day, and the date being expired, the Letter cease to be in force. 2. Adam was to winne and purchase (as it were) God to be his God. by consumate obedience. God never said that he would be Adams God by giving him influences to obey, and to obey to the end, all influences granted to Adam, to will and to do, were granted to him. 1. By God Creator, not by the grace of a Redeemer, as in the Covenant of Grace, to walk, Ezek. 36.27. to love. Deut. 30.6. to persevere, Jer. 32.39,40. 2. These influences were free gifts, but not promised. 3. They seem to be ordinis naturalis, naturall, though they did bow and previously inclince the will, but not so in the New Testament, for the whole Covenant is called by the promise of the giving of a new heart, Heb. 8.10. Isa 54.9.13. Jer. 31. 31,32,33. Ezek. 11. 19,20. Hos. 2. 18,19. And therefore better it is that God be Lord of my heart, and it be his, then that I be lord of it, and my heart be mine own heart, the lesse of our heart be upon our heart, the more upon God, the better. Ah! we cannot skill to guide a heart. 3. The threatning of death to Adam, if he should sin, Gen. 2.17. may infer a Covenant of life, and that God should be Adams God, if he should obey.
What life is promised in the Covenant of Works. 2. Whether all we, especially the Reprobate, by the fall, lost all right to the creatures. 3. How the Lord is our God.
Q. WHat is meaned by life promised in the Covenant of Works! A. 1. Not a life in Christ and the fruit of the merit of blood, as our life is in the New Covenant, Joh. 10.11.
Joh. 3.16. For Adam was not Mediator of reconciliation here, he was a sort of publick Law-head in whom he was to stand or fall, if any please to call him so a Mediator [foreign] but it is a Law-life happily a communion in glory. 2. But the life the lived, and the creatures for his service seems not to belong to this life, for the creatures were given to Adam, he not working for them. Yet I should not oppose, if any say that earthly blessings were given to Adam, as a reward of an actuall obedience, as they are given to such as keep the Law, Deut. 28. But sure our gain in Christ of such a life, bought by so noble a Ransome as the Blood of God-man, is not little. Its rawnesse and greennesse of wit, to value it so low as we do. Children see not what a hireing and taking apple Heaven is.
Q. Whether or no did Adam and all the Reprobats in his loyns, by sin, losse right to the creatures?
A. There is a three-fold right.
A naturall right may be conceived two wayes. 1. Absolutely, so creature, and man not created, can have no jus or claime to being or life, the Creators free gift is our best Charter to life and being. 2. This right may be conceived, conditionally, as if God create the Sun, a power to give light is congruous, and debita naturae Solis suteable to the nature of the Sun, nor can the creature plead for this, as debt: but if the Lord give being, to injoy this being can not be sin, because there is no law and command to nothing to receive or not to received being and life from the Creator: And where there is no Law, there is no transgression. And therefore to have being and life cannot be in it self a sin.
2. Providentiall right is but a continuating of life and being, untill the same power that gave it, shall remove it, by way of punishment; For God as Creator, of his Soveraignty, gives being and life, and the comfortable use of the creatures; but as a Judge ordinarily for sin he removes it, though he, I deny not, out of his Soveraignty, may, and possibly doth, annihilate the meat that the
Angels in assumed bodies, and which the Man Christ, after the Resurrection, did eat.
3. The spirituall right is that new supernaturall Title, which the Elect beleevers have, in order to a supernaturall end, and all these being made theirs, to promove their salvation, 1. Cor. 3.21. All things are yours. Rev. 21.7. He that overcometh shall inherit all things, by Covenant-right, for he adds, And I will be his God, and he shall be my Son, Psal. 37 10. A drink of cold water, by this Charter, is better then a Kings Crown, and hath refreshed some more then all the choise wine the earth yeelds. The love of the Giver is better then wine, Cant. 1.2. and here the Charter is, by many thousands, more precious then the Land. For nature common to all is over-gilded with free-Grace. And the naturall life and being, and the materiall heavens we shall injoy, are blessed in another manner to the glorified, then these they now injoy, 1. Cor. 15. 40,41,42,43, &c. 2. Pet. 3.13. Rev. 21.1. Isa. 65.17. and they shall be above the heavens that are, when the mysticall body shall be perfected, yea, and the dust into which the bodies of the Saints are resolved, keep a spirituall Covenant relation to God in Christ: As Exod. 3.6. Mat. 22.32. Joh. 6.39. Rom. 8.21,22,23. for no joint or part of the body, but it must share of Covenant glory. We look little to any thing but to have and injoy the dead lump and body of Gold, dead lands without Christ. See Hos. 2.18.22. Ezek. 34.25.27. Ezek. 36.29. Lev. 26.6. Psal. 37.9,11, 29. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 13.5,6. Math. 6.25,26. Psal. 34.10. O fair inheritance. 4. As to the second (which is the main controversie) to injoy life and being, is the substance of the act, no sin. Men contraveen a Law to be so and so born, to wit, in sin, for its forbidden by a Law: But to be born and live, is no sin, but by order of nature, before Originall sin. Nor is it forbidden more to man to be born and live, then its forbidden to beasts, nor to eat, sleep, wake, then to them: So neither is it commanded by a Law to die, but it is commanded and commended to die well, to fall asleep in Christ, 1 Thes. 4.14.16. to be faithfull to the death, Acts 7.60. Rev. 2.10. Rev 14.13. (2.) The Elect who are born heirs of wrath, as others, Eph 2.3. And all the Reprobate should kill themselves, or be killed, from the birth, if to live and eat were sin,
in it self. But only the Lord of life and death, and his Minister, the Magistrate hath power to take away life and being, no man can be his own burrio. But if it were sin in it self to live, they ought to expire and restore an usurped life, which they possesse, malâ side, to the owner the Lord, as a theef is oblidged to restore stollen goods (3) The dominion of Reprobats over the creatures, is a part of the good Image of God, Gen. 1.26,27. and they breath, live, ride, sail, and are no more then the Elect to lay these aside, then they are to lay aside the naturall knowledge of God, by which they are to glorifie God as God, Rom. 1.19,20,21. Rom. 2.14,15. Act. 14 16,17. Now the Reprobates have not utterly lost the Image of God, as to know there is a God, to honour their parents, to hurt no man.
4. This opinion looks the rather like a fancie, that it is a temptation in weak ones, under a sad desertion, Sathan riding upon their Melancholie (a complexion not sanctified, usefull to Sathan, and if sanctified, a seat of mortification and humble walking) for they judge it sin to eat, and drink, and sleep, they having no right thereunto, but so they have no right to live, and are oblidged to kill themselves, and upon the same ground, it was sin to Adam to speak, to answer God, to breath, to hear the news of the blessed seed, which all are acts of life, and so acts of sin, and upon the same ground, that they cannot perform these without sin, they should not pray, for in praying, they cannot but take the Name of God in vain. For we are not to abstaine from a duty, because of the sinfulnesse, which adheres to the duty, by reason of our corruption, for in Christ the sinfulnesse is pardoned, and the duty accepted.
5. It necessarily must follow, if it be sin to eat, because the nonconverted have no right spirituall in Christ, to bread, the converted may spoil by their grounds, all the non-converted, of their goods, houses, gold, gardens, vineyards, lands, and upon the same ground, for the crime of non-regeneration, they must also deprive them of their lives, and kill them; For they have alike right, that is, no right (these men being Judges) to either life or goods. And so, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thy self, must be meant of the converted neighbour: but with fire and sword all other neighbours may be killed and spoiled, and so there should
be no stealing, no oppressing, no crushing of the widow, the stranger, the fatherlesse, the weaker; not grind the faces of the poor, though their Redeemer be strong, contrair to the Scripture, Prov. 23.11. Jer. 50.33,34. Psal. 94.5,6,7,8. Psal. 14.4. Exo. 22.26,27. Isa. 3.12,13,14,15. Mic. 2.3. and so it were lawfull to take Crowns, Kingdomes, inheritances, lands, dignitie, and honour, from all the unregenerate Princes, powers, and rulers on earth, to cut off with the sword all the heathen Nations who as yet know not Christ, and it were lawfull for the regenerate sons and brethren to kill and spoil Father, Mother, Brethren, Sisters, Kings, Potentates, Countrey-men, strangers, Orphans, exiled, captives, prisoners, sick, weak, imprisoned, all infants that are by nature the heirs of wrath, upon this ground, the converted ones judge all non-converts to be void of all due right to life, or goods, and so in these men, the societies, Churches of Christ must cease.
Obj. These who injoy that of which they deserve to be deprived, have no due right to that of which they deserve to be deprived, but are usurpers, and so sin. But all the non-regenerated are such, or, they who use that to which they have no right, do sin in the act of using it.
Ans. 1. They who injoy that of which they deserve to be deprived, they sin, and have no due right to use it; Is not universally true. They who injoy that which they may and ought by their own private power, restore, such as ill conquished goods. They sin in using that, true, Prov. 3.27. Exod. 22.26,27. Luke 19. 8. Its a sin to withhold the rayment though laid in pawnd, which should cover the poor mans skin in the night, and they have no right to injoy that.
But they who injoy that, what ever it be, of which by sin, they deserve to be deprived, they have no due right to that, it is denyed: For if it be life, being, eating, sleeping, and such things, as only can be taken away, by a judiciall power, and by God the Lord of life and death, and cannot be taken away by themselves, (for it is lawfull for no man to punish himself and take away his own life) nor by any other, except for capital crimes, they have due providentiall right to keep and injoy all such things untill the same power that gave them remove them, nor do they sin in using
them. And it is most dangerous to say, that Devils and the damned in Hell who dishonour the Majesty of God by their living and being, and so by sin, deserve to be annihilated and deprived of their being, do sin, in that they live and are not annihilated, and that all the Elect before their conversion, sin in that they injoy being and life. A judge sentenceth a man to die for killing his father within 24. houres, but by invincible providence he is rescued out of the hand of the Magistrate, and lives diverse years after, the sentenced man sins not before God nor against the law of the land, in that he lives, nor can be called an usurper and unjust, malæ sidei, possessour of his life: For the sentence was not that he should take away his life with his own hand, but that it should be taken away by the judiciall hand and executioner of the Magistrate. Nor is this Providentiall right, a right of meer permission but of positive donation and free-gift, for then we might by the same reason, say that Reprobate men have of meer permission to keep and injoy the knowledge of these, that God is: Superiours, Parents are to be honoured: the whole is more then the part; Yea they have the same naturall and providentiall right by nature that other sinners have to the one as to the other. 2. These who injoy that, of which they deserve to be deprived, they sin in the act of using; as touching the substance of the act of living, being, eating, drinking: That is most false. These who injoy that, of which they deserve to be deprived, they, in modo, in the way, maner, and end of living, eating, &c. do sin: It is true: and such have and spirituall and supernaturall right in Christ (which they ought to have, if they be in the Visible Church and hearers of the Gospel) to life, being and the creatures, and they sin in not believing, Rom. 14. not eating for the Glory of God, 1 Cor. 10. 31. Naturall men care not if they have and injoy things so they have them: They have being, so have earth, stones, &c. they live, so doe trees and hearbs, they have health, so have beasts and birds, they swallow up many years, so do Ravens, and Harts and other beasts, a long lump, many thousand yairds and miles of life are sought, diu sunt, non diu vivunt. But who lives for God, who sleeps, who wakes, who eats for God and his Glory? and they who make themselves their last end, Idolatrously put self in the roome of God, who only
is the last end of all,
Q. What way is God ours?
A. BY Covenant, Ezek. 34. 24. Genes. 17. 7. Jere. 32. 38. Zech. 13.9. But he is not ours as if we had some gifted right and dominion over him, as we have over the creatures. 2. Nor is he ours as we are his, the clay hath no soveraignty over the Potter. Nor 3. is God simply as God ours, but God as it were coming down in Christ to us Covenant-wayes as God incarnate, to make out his goodnesse, grace, mercy to and for us. 4. Its true God incarnate, Christ, is principally Gods, 1 Cor. 3. 21. not ours. He is all for God, he is Immanuel, our Immanuel in order to save us, and so is more ours then the God of Angels.
2. God is the fluier of the Saints desire, more to them then all heaven in the length and breadth thereof, and all the inhabitants thereof, Psal. 73.25. Isa. 63.16. more then all the Angels and Saints, 1 Thes. 4.16. (2.) There is no hell to Christ but afar off God. Psal. 22.1. Math. 27.45. no heaven but the glory he had with the father, John 17.5. (3.) There is nothing more like a spiritual disposition then when the Spouse, Cant. 3. hath soul-love to Christ: I sought him whom my soul loved. (2.) She hath an ardent desire after him, I sought him but I found him not. 3. There could not be such diligent search after she found him, if there had not been strong faith. 4. And her conference with the watchman, Saw ye him whom my soul loveth? saith, She enjoyed Ordinances and means, yet there may be (which is to be observed) a furniture of grace and a want of Christ, I went a little further, I found him whom my soul loveth, Cant. 5. There is 1. a waking heart. 2. A discerning of the Beloved, and a telling over again of his words, Open to me, my sister, &c. 3. A stirring of Christs hand upon the key-hole of the heart. 4. A moving of the bowels for him. 5. A seeking of him and a praying, but no finding nor answer. 6. A love-sicknesse for him, and yet a missing of himself, I sought him but I found him not. So compare Cant. 1.1,4. with
Cant. 2.3,4. with v. 6,8. and other places, it will be clear a Godhead can only quiet the spirit, and that its a question whether we know the field where the Pearle is, and the Rubies, Saphirs, precious stones that are hid here, which do in worth exceed the capapacity of Angels and Saints.
Therefore should his glory be the
last end and stirrer of us in all our actings, and grace the only efficient in
all, and so much of God (if he be ours by Covenant) as our wayes, intentions
may smell of him. But there is much of the creature, of self, of gain, of empty
glory, in our spirituall actings. God weights nor down the creature nor heaven
and union with Christ: as Exod.
Q. WHat are the false grounds of the Lords making the Covenant of Grace?
A. There are two bastard grounds devised by Arminians. 1. Because the Covenant of Works cannot oblidge both to active and passive obedience, but to one of them only (say they) and the Covenant of Works was so rigid, that God could not follow it out, and cast infants in hell for a sin which is theirs, only by imputation, and was pardoned to the first man that committed it. Therefore he was necessitated to make a Covenant of Grace with all mankind, none excepted. But the Covenant of Works is broken, and can now be a way of Justification and salvation to none, but yet it oblidges all. And sin cannot make us lawlesse, for the spirituall Law is of an eternall obligation. 2. They that never heard of Christ, perish by the Law, and not by the Covenant of Grace of
which they never heard, and the Gospel is written in the
heart of none. 3. The first Covenant was holy and spirituall, and God should unjustly threaten death upon
infants, if they be not guilty of eternall condemnation, as Arminius, disp. pub. 7. th. 16.3. and the Scripture saith,
infants are guilty of this sin, Eph.
The three-fold Covenant considered. 2. The Law pressed
THere be who hold that there be three Covenants. 1. A Covenant of Nature, whereby God as Creator required
perfect obedience from Adam in Paradice, with promise of life, and threatning of death.
2. The Covenant of Grace, whereby he promises life and forgivenesse in Christs Blood to believers.
3. A subservient Covenant, made 1. With
The differences between the subservient Covenant, and that of Grace.
1. In the subservient, God only approves righteousnesse and condemnes sin in that of Grace he pardons and renues. Ans. Acts. 15. 11. We beleeve through the Grace of the Lord Jesus, we shall be saved even as they under that Covenant. Acts 10. 43. To him gave all the Prophets witnesse, that through his Name, whosoever beleeveth in him, shall receive remission of sins. Abraham and David were justified, in that sin was not imputed to them, not by works, Rom. 4.1,2,3,—6,7,8,9, &c. Gen. 15.6. Psal. 32. 1.2.5. I said I will confesse my transgression, and thou forgavest the iniquity of my sin. Isa. 43 25. I, even I am he that blots out
thy transgressions for my own sake, and I will not remember thy sins. So David was a man according to the heart of God, so Asa, Josiah, Jehoshaphat, Samuel, Baruch, Gedeon, Daniel, the Prophets, under that subservient Covenant (except they be under a fourth Covenant) were renued, justified, saved by faith, Heb. 11. as under a Covenant of Grace.
2. The former was, do and live, this was, believe and live, Ans. Doing and living
was but a shuting them up under the Law, that they might flee to Christ in whom
they beleeved; else the fathers must be saved and justified by works contrair
to Rom. 2.
3. In antiquity, the former came in as added 430, years after the promise of grace, Gal. 3. 17.
Ans. True, but he speaks of the Covenant in Sinai, according to the strict Law part, which could not save, and so its different. But that proves nor two Covenants.
4. In the former is compulsion
and the Spirit of bondage, in this heart inclining freedom and the Spirit of
Adoption. Ans. Yet the differences
are accidentall, there was a legall awing of the hearts, as if they had been
Servants, yet Hens and Sons they were, Gal.
4.1,2. The whole Book of the Proverbs spake to the Godly as to Adopted Son.
They were beleevers, Heb. 11.
5. In the former man is dead, in this man is humbled for sinne? Answ. Legally dead, except they would flee to Christ, and legally condemned, but there, was true humiliation for sins under that Covenant, As David, Josiah, Hezekiah, and all beleevers then, as now, were pardoned and justified.
6. In the former there are commands, not strength, but here there be promises and grace given? Ans. The full abundance of grace and of a new heart, was reserved untill now. And the Law could not make perfect nor give pardon, in the blood of beasts; as touching that legall dispensation: But both grace, the Spirit,
pardon, righteousnesse and life were received and beleeved; by looking on Christ to come.
7. In the former,
But the truth is, the Law as
1. The Law as the Law or as a
Covenant of Works is made with perfect men who need no mercy; But this Covenant
is made with sinners, with an expresse preface of mercy: I am the Lord thy God that brought thee out of the land of Egypt,
&c. It is made with stiff necked
groaning, and remembred his Covenant with Abraham and
Isaak and Jacob. So the Lord expones
it in his appearing to Moses. Exod.
3.6. Jer. 31.32. Not according to the Covenant which I made with their fathers, in the
day that I took them by the hand, to bring them out of the
3. This Covenant hath the promise
of a circumcised heart, Deut. 30.6.
and of the word of faith that is near in
the mouth, and of the righteousnesse of faith clearly differenced from the
righteousnesse of the Law by doing. For so
4. The Covenant of Works taught nothing of the way of
expiation of sin by blood typifying the Ransome of blood that Christ was to pay
for our sins, as this Covenant, all along had sacrifices and blood to confirm
it. Exod. 24.8. And Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, and said,
behold this is the Blood of the Covenant which the Lord hath made with you, concerning
all these words. Now the words were the ten Commandements. See Heb. 9. v. 18,19,20,21,22,23,24. (5.) This Covenant is made with
(7.) The Lord minds to lay aside the Law as inconsistent with the Covenant of Grace, Gal. 3.18. If the inheritance be by the Law, then it is not by promise, but God gave it to Abraham by promise; For to live by this Covenant, is a life of promises, all being here promised, both faith the condition, and perseverance therein, and a new heart, righteousnesse, pardon, and life. A man that hath his estate in papers and in good words that are transient things, may seem a poor man, but to live by promises here is the rich life of the heirs of hope, this is strong consolation under deadness, absence, faith working under-ground in the dark, Gal. 3.21. If there had been a Law which could have given life, verily righteousnesse should have been by the Law.
Though he commanded them to do the Law, it was not that they should live thereby, and though he commanded us the same, it is another command, as it were, it is not so much now that we obey from the Authority of God Law-giver under pain of damnation (though that be not laid aside, but urged in a Gospel intention upon heirs) as from the love of God, Grace giver; as also there is an intrinsecall amænitie in Christ drawing, and obedience now becomes connaturall, free, delightfull. Let these consider, to whom the yoak of obedience is a torment and a man-mill.
8. The Passeover and
Circumcision, Gen. 17.7. all along
were seals of the Covenant, as Baptism one with Circumcision in substance,
Its true that first Covenant had Moses for its mediator, but as he was a Type of Christ, so Christ yesterday and the day was the reall Mediator, but vailed. The New Covenant hath better promises, Heb. 8.6. Heb. 7.22. its a better Covenant, Heb. 7.22. hath a better reall, not a Typicall suretie, a better Priest who offered himself through the eternall Spirit, Heb. 9.14. a better Sacrifice, because of the plainenesse, Iohn 16.29. 2 Cor. 3. 18. because the reall promises are made out to us, because of a larger measure of Grace, 2 Cor. 3.1,2,3,4. And the first Covenant is faultie, Heb. 8.7. not because there was no Salvation by it, the contrare is Heb. 11. but that is comparatively spoken: because the blood of beasts therein could not take away sins, Heb. 10.1,2,3,4. because forgivenesse of sins is promised darkly in the first Covenant, but plainly in the other, because Grace is promised sparingly in the former, but here abundantly, the Law being written in the heart, John 7.39. Esa. 54.13.
And it is true, Gal. 4.22,23,24,25. &c. they seeme to be made contrare Covenants: But Paul speaks, Gal. 3. of the Law as relative to that people, and so it pressed them to Christ, and keeps them as young Heires under nonage. 2. He speaks of the Law absolutely, as contradistinguished from the Gospel, Gal. 4.21. so it is a Covenant of Works begetting children to bondage: 2. Who come short of righteousnesse and the inheritance, and shall not be
saved. 3. Who are casten out of the Kingdome of Grace. 4. Who persecute the Godly the Sons of promise, so is the Law as it was in Adams dayes, and is now to all the Reprobate; so the Godly are not under the Law and the Covenant of Works. The Covenant urged upon Believers is to prove them, when they stand afar off and tremble, Exod. 20.20. Fear not (saith Moses) God is come to prove you (not to damne you) and therefore Calvine solidely observeth that Paul, 2 Cor. 3. speaks with lesse respect of the Law then the Prophets do, for their cause, who out of a vain affectation of the Law-Ceremonies, gave too much to the Law and darkned the Gospel, and sayeth the one was 1. Literall. 2. Written in stone. 3. A Sermon of death and wrath. 4. To be done away and lesse glorious, whereas the Gospel is Spirituall. 2. Written on the heart. 3. The Ministrie of life. 4. And glorious: and praises put upon the Law, agree not to it of its own nature, but as it was used by the Lord to prove them, Exod. 29.20. and chase them to Christ.
The Arminians also (especially Episopius)
make three Covenants. 1. One with Abraham,
in which he requires sincere worship and putting away strange gods: Beside 2.
Faith and Universall obedience, and promised
$ell fed, then with men, contrare to Psal. 73.25. Isa. 57.1,2,3. Psal. 37.37. and it must build some Chalmer in hell, where the fathers were before Christ, a dreame unknown to Scripture. The third Covenant makes the Covenant of Grace a Covenant of Works, and holds out life and pardon, upon condition that freewill repent and believe and stand on its own feet, for there is neither faith, nor a new heart nor repentance promised contrare to Deut. 30.6. Ezek. 11.19,20. Ezek. 36.26,27. Isa. 59.19,20,21. Isa. 44.1,2,3,4,5. Zech. 12.10.
1. All are to try under what Covenant they are. 2. Threatnings under the New Testament are more spirituall 3. Desertions under both are compared. 4. Considerable differences of such as are under the Covenant of Works, and such as are under the Covenant of Grace. 5. Of legall terrors. 6. Of convictions compelled, free, legall, &c.
Quest. 1. WHether should not all try under what Covenant they are.
Answ. Self-searching is a reflect act upon the state (and such acts are more spirituall, then direct acts) and therefore it should be the work of all, to try, under what reign they are, whether of the first or second Adam. And where as Angels cover their faces and their feet with wings. Isa. 6. before God and are full of eyes, as without, so also within Rev. 4.8. We may hence learn, such come nearest to the nature of these pure and heavenly Spirits, who have eyes within to see what they are, and their blacknesse of face and feet, when they compare themselves either with the Holy God, or his Holy Law. 2. The Carnall man is a beast, Psal 49.20. and beasts have no reflect acts upon their own beastly state. 3. The more of a spirituall life is in any the more stirring in communing with their own heart, the Law makes, the more of life that is in the worme when tramped on, the more stirring it makes, deadnesse and stupiditie in not being versed and well read and skilled in our selves and our own heart, argues little of the
Spirit, and estrangement to a spirituall Covenant, nor can any lay hold on the Covenant of Grace in a night dream.
Quest. Whether are there rarer threatnings of Temporall evils under the New Covenant, then under the Old?
It cannot be denyed, except the threatnings of the Sword, Famine Pestilence on
23. 29,30. is more intollerable under the Gospel. (4.) There is a more numerous company of these who have not loved their lives to the death, and the Martyres that suffered more exquisite torments for Christ, under the persecuting Emperours and reigne of Antichrist, then ever before; the constraining love of Christ, which is stronger then death or hell hath so swallowed up all temporarie sufferings, the Spirit hath such influence on the flesh. (5.) When the world seeks wisdome, 1 Cor. 1. and Rabbies of the Jews and learning and artes abound all the world over, as the profound Philosophers of the Gentiles, the wonders of nature prove, yet not many wise are called, 1 Cor. 3.21,26,27. and unlettered and ignorant, are, in number, for Godly spirituall knowledge, farre beyond the Godly learned; and make that true, Esa. 11.9. The earth shall be filled with the knowledge of the Lord, as the waters cover the Sea, and Isa. 30. 26. And the light of the Moon shall be as the light of the Sun, and the light of the Sun shall be as the light of seven dayes, so hath the Lord darkned carnall learning, though of it self the good gift of God, with the shining of spirituall wisedome in the fools of the world, for so are they judged, 1 Cor. 1.27.
Q. 3. What are the speciall differences of one under the Covenant of Works,
and of one under the Covenant of Grace? Answ.
1. The dominion and kingly power of sin, to condemn and judge to eternall
wrath, and also to command against all shaddow of reason such crying sins, 1 Cor. 6.9,10.
and willingly commit and deliver themselves (the word
spoken of Christs willingnesse to offer himself for us, Eph. 5.25. and to God the Judge, 1 Pet. 2.23.) to commit filthinesse [foreign] in aboundance, with greedinesse, Esa. 9.19. when the renued part
enters not a spirituall protestation on the contrare, see
naturall conscience, as heat from fire, light from the Sun: Compelled convictions speak a Law state.
2. It is easier to be sound and
Orthodox, then to be Godly, Sathan in a manner soundly believes there is one
3. A man under a Law work may give a legall and dead assent to both the truth and goodnesse of the promises liberally conceived, as temporaries doe, and Simon Magus wonders, but Saul, Acts 9. the Jaylor trembles, Acts 16. but that is in regard of the conviction not of the mind only, but of the conviction of affection and the yeelding to what shall I do? But Flix trimbleth, but only in regard of literall conviction on the mind, but neither he nor Magus comes to what shall I doe? they differ as the burning light of a fire, which both casts light and with it shining heat also, and the light that precious stones cast in the night, which is both little and hath no heat. Fyrie and piercing convictions are good, there is a dead conviction of the letter that doth not profite.
4. There is a strong Law-conviction that vengeance followeth the scaddings of Sodomie, and the killing of parents, because naturall instinct kindles and fires the soul with Law-apprehensions, when the minde hath engraven snarpnesse to discerne undenyable principles, but the conscience is more dull in apprehending that spirituall vengeance followeth such spirituall sins as unbelief, because untill there be some supernaturall revelation, we are dead to the Gospel truths, and Gospel sins, but when a common Grace hightens the soul to a supernaturall assent that Christ is a Teacher sent of God, Joh. 7.28. Joh. 3.2. the conviction is more strong: But because it is more supernaturall, and instead of kindly affection of love which it wants, it is mixed with hatred and anger and so degeners into fierie indignation against the Holy Ghost, as Joh. 15. 24. compared with Math. 12. 15, 26.31. cleareth. 5. Conviction which is no more but conviction, is no godly principle, nor makes any heart change, yea it goes dangerously on to wonder and a despise, except it send down coals of fire to the affections. 6. He who is under the Covenant of Grace findes a threefold sweetnesse in obedience. 1. An inbred sweetnesse in the commands 2. In the strength by which he acts. 3. An inbred sweetnesse in a communion with God. No man is any other way under the Law, then under a yoak, what is only written seems the oldnesse of the letter, Rom. 7. and is dead of it self, and layes on a burden, but gives no back to bear. He that is under Grace findes sweetnesse of delight in a positive Law though the thing commanded be as hard to
flesh and blood as to be crucified, Joh. 10.18. yet it obtains a sweetnesse of holinesse from Gods will, Psal. 40.8. I delight to do thy will, O God, (even to be made a curse and crucified) Thy Law is within my heart, and he would but fulfill all righteousnesse, even that which seems to be the outside of the Gospel, to be sprinkled with water, Math. 3.15. and this Christ would doe as under the Covenant of Grace.
2. The stirrings and breathings of the Spirit makes the work sweet, hearing brings burning of heart, Luke 24.32. willing gladnesse, Acts 2.41. and some sweetnesse of stirred bowells comes from the Lords putting in his hand through the Key hole of the door of the heart, Cant. 5.4. where as to an naturall man under the Law, to lift up a Prayer is to carie a milstone on his back, every syllabe of a word is a stone weight which he cannot bear. 3. Were there no more in praying, but a communion with God, how sweet is it? when Christ prayeth, the fashion of his countenance is changed, Luke 9.29. There is a heaven in the bosome of Prayer, though there were never a granting of the sute, sure there is a sin in making heaven a hire, and in making duty a relative thing, a horse for a journey, a ship for a voyage to fetch home gold, where as there is heaven in praising God before the Throne, such as is both work and wages, and so in spirituall duties here.
7. Suppose there were no letter of a command, because there is suteablenesse between the Law ingraven in the heart, and the spirituall matter commanded, a childe of Grace under Grace sets to out duties, so that (in a maner) there is no need to say to David, Get thee to Jerusalem and to the house of God, for he sayeth, Psal. 122.1. I was glad when they said, let us go to the house of the Lord. As there needs no command that the Father love the child, nor is there need to exhort the Sea to ebbe and flow, or the Sun to shine: nor are many arguments usefull to presse the mother to give suck to the child, nature stands for a Law here, the strength of the ingraven Law in the heart, over powreth the letter. So the new nature, the indwelling anointing, as a new instinct putteth the $$$$ of Grace to act. But here we are to beware, that we separate not the Word and the Spirit, the Father of Spirits loves to work with his own tools, and sow with his own seed the Word of
God, these three agree in one 1. The Spirit acting. 2. The habit of Grace acted upon by the Spirit, who blows away the ashes, and 3. The word of exhortation: nor doe we extoll dead letters and livelesse formes, as Libertines say, for we take in with the letter the quickning sense and convincing meaning of the Word, and in considerable that the Spirit drawes sweetly after him, the nature, faculties of will, minde and affections, and they need no other allurement but the Word, the Spirit, and the new nature: But when they barbarouslie slew their children and made them passe through the fire, they must put out of their ears and hearts the crying and howling of the murthered Babies, with the noise of the beatting of drums; nature serves the Divell often weeping, and Sathan deadenes nature, Grace so mortifies as the consent of delegation goes alone, Psal. 1.2. Psal. 119. 72. 97.
There are two sorts of Covenanting, on externall, professed, visible, conditionall, another internall, reall, absolute and the differences betwixt them. 2. Infants Externally in Covenant under the New Testament 3. Some Questions touching infants.
Persons are two wayes in Covenant with God, externally by Visible profession, and conditionally, not in reference to the Covenant, but to the thing promised in Covenant, which none obtains, but such as fulfill the condition of the Covenant: For consent of parties, promise and restipulation whether expresse, by word of mouth, Deut. 5. 27. We will hear and do, Josh. 24. 24. And the people said unto Joshua, the Lord our God will we serve and his voice will we obey. Or yet tacit and implicit by profession. I will be thy God, and the God of thy feed, makes parties in Covenant. The keeping or breaking of the Covenant, must then be extrinsecall to ones being confederate with God. And 2. Infants born of Covenanted Parents are in Covenant with God, because they are born of such Parents, as are in Covenant with God, Gen. 17. 7. I will be a God to thy seed after thee.
(2.) The Covenant choise on Gods part is extended to the seed, Deut. 4.37. And because he loved thy Fathers, therefore he choise their seed after them. Deut. 10. 15. Only the Lord had a delight in thy Fathers, to love them, (and) he choise their seed after them, (even you (Fathers and Children) above all people, (as it is) this day. And the Covenant choise of seed is extended to the seed in the New Testament. Act. 2. 39. For to you, and to your children is the promise made. He speaks in the very tearms and words of the Covenant, Gen. 17.7. [foreign], every one of you be baptized, he faith not every one of you, old and young, Parents and Children, repent. For that command of Repentance is given only personally to them who moved the Question, What shall we do, Men and Brethren? 37. For we are under great wrath, and crucified the Lord of Glory. The Answer is, you aged, Repent. 39. True. But ah, we prayed, his blood be upon us and our Children. He Answers to that, every one of you be baptized. Why, that must be every one of you who are comanded to repent? No. It must be every one of you to whom the promise is made, but the promise is made [foreign]. Observe the very two Pronouns that are, Gen. 17.7. Deu. 4.37. Deut. 10.15. to thee and thy seed. To you and your seed, and children. Now the Answer had been most impertinent, if he had mentioned their children, except in order to their Baptism, and their being in Covenant. For 1. their Children crucified not the Lord Jesus; Nay by Anabaptists grounds, their Children not being visibly in Covenant with their Parents, and not capable of actuall hearing the Word, of actuall mourning for, and repenting of their sins, as Zech. 12.10. Mat. 3.8,9,10. they were not concerned either in the evill of their Parents, who crucified the Lord of Glory, nor in the good of their Repentance more then stones. So that (every one of you be baptized, for the promise is to you and to your Children) should be impertinent, and also false; for Covenant promises are no more made to Children, then to stones, say the opposites of Infant Baptism. Yea also, as the Lord in the Old Testament, calls Israel his people. My people old and young. Saul shall be Captain of my people. David shall feed my people, old and young, and shall punish with the sword the murthering of Infants. 2. Because he choise (with a Covenant choise) the
Jews and their seed, Deut. 4.37. Deut. 10.15. Gen. 17.7. then he must be the God of their seed. But he choiseth with a Covenant choise, and calling all the Nations, Isa. 2.2,3. All the kindreds of the earth under the New Testament, Psal. 22.27. All Egypt and Assyria under the New Testament. Blessed be Egypt my people, and Assyria the work of my hand, Isa. 19.29. All the Kingdomes of the World are the Lords, and his Sons, and he reigns in them, by his Word and Gospel, as the seventh Angel soundeth, Revel. 11.15. All the Gentiles are his, Isa. 60.1,2,3,4. Mal. 1.11. All the ends of the earth, and the heathen, Psal. 2. 8,9. Psal. 72, 7,8,9,10. Now if they be not his by visible and externally professed Covenant, they must be the Lords Kingdoms only, because some in these Kingdomes. 1. Are come to age. 2. Professe the truth. 3. Given a signification that they are converted and chosen, and so baptized. But so infants and all the rest of these Kingdomes who fixedly, in a Church, hear the Word, professe they are followers, and by so doing are witnesses against themselves that they have chosen the Lord to be their God, and have consented to the Covenant, as Joshua saith, Josh, 24.22. must be under the New Testament cut off from the Covevant, and a place must be shown where God hath now under the New Testament, broken the staves of beauty and bands, and hath laid this curse upon all the Infants of Egypt, Assyria, of all the Kingdomes of the earth, that the Lord is now no God to them, and feeds them no more, and therefore that which dies, let it die, and that which is cut off, let it be cut off, as it is, Zech. 11.9. And the like must be said of all that are come to age, and not baptized, or as good as not baptized. And Covenant promises are not to the Children of Beleevers, contrair to Acts 2.39. nor to the aged, untill they be converted visibly and Baptized; This then hath never yet been fulfilled, that the Gentiles and Heathen are become to Lords people. Sure, it is (2.) and was a mercy for the seed to be in Covenant, Exod. 20.6. I am the Lord shewing mercies unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my Commandements. Psal. 89. 28. My mercy will I keep with David and his seed. What mercy? My Covenant shall stand fast with him. Hence they are called the sure mercies of David. Isa. 55. The Lord following the seed of the Godly
with real mercies (so that it cannot be called the favour of a ceremony and instituted or positive priviledge belonging only to the Jews) as that his seed is blessed, Psal. 37.26. Psal. 112. 2. This mercy must be taken away either in mercie or in wrath: but that a real mercy of a blessing should be taken away in mercy, except a spirituall mercy of saving grace in Christ were given in place thereof, cannot be said, far lesse hath it any truth that a real mercy can be removed in wrath from Infants in Jesus Christ, in whom the Nations are blessed. And we see, Deut. 28. the blessing of an observed Covenant, and the curses of a broken Covenant are extended to the fruit of the body to the sons and the daughters, v. 4 18.32. Job 21. 19. Job 29. 14. Job 18.15,16,17. And that this is not a New Testament dispensation, who can say? And that outward positive favours are bestowed on Infants, is clear. (1.) That Christ laid his hands on them and blessed them, making them a fixed copy of the indwellers of his Kingdom. (2) The promises of the Covenant are made to them, Act. 2. 39. (3.) They are clean and holy by Covenant holinesse, 1 Cor. 7.14. which cannot be meant of being born of the marriage-bed. For Paul, Rom. 11. 16. saith the same, of the Jews, root and branches, Fathers and Children: And no man dreamed that Paul, Rom. 11. intends to prove that the Jews shall be insert in again, because they are free of bastardie Father and sons. Now Infants understand no more any of these to be blessed by the laying on of the hands of Christ, and to be such as have title to the promises, Acts 2. 39. and to be Covenant-wise holy, 1 Cor. 7. then they understand Baptism. (4.) The same Covenant made with Abraham is made with the Corinthians, 2. Cor. 6. 16. I will be their God, and they shall be my people. Which is Prophesied of the Gentiles under the New Testament, Ezek 11.17,18,19,20. Ezek 34.23,24,25. Jer. 31,31,32,33,34,35,36. Jer. 32.36,37,38,39,40. Zech. 13.9. Hos. 1.10,11. 1 1 Pet. 2.9,10. And it is made to the Gentiles with an eke of a new heart, and a larger extent of the Covenant under the New Test, for which cause it is called a better Covenant, hath better promises, Heb. 7.22. Heb. 8 6,7,8,9,10,11,12. Now that were a strange eke and excellency of the New Testament Covenant above the Old, to forfeir, without farther processe, all Infants under the New Testament
of all Covenant-right, which was due to them of old under the Covenant which the Lord calls faultie: Egypt shall be my people, except their 1. Infants. 2. And except their aged, and their non-Saints. (5.) Infants in the former Covenant had right by birth to the means of salvation, to be taught and Catechised in the Law of the Lord, because born of Covenanting Parents within the Visible Church, and so had title to Covenant calling, and GODS Covenant choising, Mat. 22.4. as is clear, Gen. 18. 19. I know Abraham will command his Children and his houshold after him, and they shall keep they way of the Lord, Exod.20.10. Deut.6,6,7. And thou shall teach them diligently unto thy Children, Exod. 12.26,27. Ps. 78.4,5,6. Now if Infants be without the Covenant as the Infants of Pagans, then they have no more Covenant-right to the hearing of the Gospel, and a treatie with Christ, and Covenant, then Pagans have. Its not enough to say their Father owe that much naturall compassion to their souls, as to teach them, it being a Parents duty; Yea, but what warrand hath a Father as a Father to make offer of a Covenant of Grace in the Name of GOD to one Pagan more then to another, since all are equally without the Covenant, if there be a Covenant-call warranted to them, where is the Fathers command to propone and ingadge the Covenanters consent, if the Children by Pagans? but as they have a right by birth to the call, they being born where the call foundeth, they must have some visible right to the Covenant it self, more then other Pagans. Its but of small weight to say that, Rom. 9. Paul expoundeth that in the New Testament, I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed, only of the spirituall seed, such as Jacob, who was predestinated to Glory, not of those that are carnally descended of Abraham, otherwise it should follow, that these that are in the Covenant, might believe that they should be saved, though void of Faith and Repentance. Answ. The purpose of the Apostle, Rom. 9. is to Answer a sad Objection: if the Jews be cast off, and rejected of God, as Paul, by his extreame desire to have them saved, insinuates, then the Word of God takes no effect, and his calling and choising of them for his people, takes no effect, v. 6. He Answers, it is not failed, though the body of Israel be rejected. For there are two kinds of Israelits, some only carnall and born
according to the flesh: Others sons of promise, and chosen of God. Now the word of promise takes
effect in the latter sort, to wit, in the chosen, and in the sons of promise,
for they are not cast off of God, and
so the Word of God takes effect, v.
6. (2.) But the truth is, if there be none Covenanted with God, but the chosen
under the New Testament, then there is no such thing as an externall and
visible Covenanting with God, under
the New Testament, then must all the Nations. Isa. 2. 1, 2. Kingdomes of the World, Rev. 11.15. all
where the word is Preached to children, who are to be
taught, Gen. 18.19. Deut. 6. 7. Exod. 12. 26, 27. Psal.
78. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. 2 Tim. 3.
15. and the Lord reckons it among the favours, that hee bestowes not on every Nation, but onely on his owne
Covenanted Ifrad, that the Word of
the Gospel to gather them and their Children, Math. 23. 37. 2 Tim. 3.
15. Psal. 78. 1,2,3,4,5. and his
Statutes and his Judgments are declared and Preached to them, Psal. 147. 19, 20. Deut. 5. 1,2,3,4. 5.6. 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7. Psal. 81. 4. and that the Oracles of God, and the promises are
committed to them,
give signification by confession, that they are not onely visible but also invisible and chosen confederates, and they should have said all children are now by Christ excluded as prophane Gentiles and heathen from the Covenant of Grace, because there can be none (say Anabaptists) but reall Believers under the New Testament in Covenant with God.
Yea but the New Testament offers
Christ a Covenant, in the preached promises, alike to fathers and sons. Math. 4. 16. The people (fathers and sons) that
sate in darknesse saw great light, &c. Math. 19. 43. Therefore I say
unto you, the Kingdome of God shall be taken from you and given to a nation
bringing forth the froots thereof. And is it not a punishment to be
deprived of the Kingdome? If the Kingdome of God come where the Preached
Covenant is, Math. 3. 2. Math. 12. 28. and the Bridegroome among
them, and so cause of joy, Math. 9.15.
and the Golden Candlesticks be there and the Son of God walking in the midst of
the Golden Candlesticks, Rev. 1. 20. c.
2. 1. sure this is much to children. If it be said, it is very nothing, for
children understand nothing of this. What then is meant by the Prophecie of the
incoming of the Gentiles, Psal. 87.
3, Glorious things are spoken of thee, O
Q. And may we not say, that the same Covenant of Grace, we are under, is the same in nature and substance with that Covenant made with Abraham? Ans. The same Christ was their Mediator, as ours, Heb. 13. 8. their Rock and our Rock, Christ. 1 Cor. 10. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Ioh. 8. 56.
(2.) We are justified as Abraham, and David. Rom, 4.1,2,3,4,5. Gen. 15.6. Ps. 32.1,2.
3. They were saved by Grace, the Gentiles as well as they, Acts 15.11. by faith, Acts 10.43. Heb. 11. 1,2,3,4. 13.&c.
4. There is no more reason to
say, it was a civill Covenant made with Abraham,
because it distinguished Abrahams seed
from other Nations, and an earthly Covenant, because Canaan was promised to them, not to us, then to say there be two
Covenants of Works, one made to Adam,
with a promise of an earthly Paradice,
and another Covenant of Works to the Jews,
with an earthly Canaan; And a third
to these who in the Gospel time are under a Covenant of Works. Yea upon the
same account, the Covenant of Grace made, Psal
89. 2 Sam. 7. with David, having a Throne promised to him,
should be yet another Covenant different from the other two; And since a
Covenant here is a way of obtaining salvation up in condition of obedience, John Baptist should be under another
Covenant of Grace, then the Apostles:
For to their faith is promised the working of miracles, Mark 16. 16, 17, 18. But John
wrought no miracles, and many thousands of beleevers work no miracles, and they
must be under a third Covenant: For though
Name of Jesus and the Blood of the Covenant: Contrair to Acts 4.12. 1 Joh. 1.8. Rev. 1.5. (3.) they shall be saved
Q 3. Are they not saved all of them? Is not this enough? But because the
Ans. If his Kingdom be not spirituall, because his wisedom hath appointed externall signes, then no promise (which is but good words) shall be made to Children, contrair to Acts 2. 39. for they can do them no good untill they beleeve. 2. Then should there be no Preaching of the Gospel to all Nations, as Mat. 28.20. for impossible it is that all Nations can be profited by the Gospel. 3. The doubt suppones that it is legall servilitie and Jewish to be under the Gospel Preached and the dispensation of signes and seals, even to the aged, such as are Baptism, the Supper, rebukes, censures. 4. To be a visible member, and visibly is Covenant, and to be baptized, except all be sound beleevers, must be Jewish. Now certain, it is a new Testament Ordinance that Ministers Preach and baptize all nations, though the greatest part beleeve not.
Q. 4. Is faith sanctifie as faith, then an unbeleeving whore might be sanctified by a beleeving fornicator: For faith will do its formall work in every subject?
Answ. Paul never meant that faith doth sanctifie in every subject, but in subjecto capaci. Faith sanctifieth not incest and sin, they are not capable to be separated to a holy use: If fire as fire burn, then might all the water in the Ocean be dryed up with the least sparkle of fire. If prayer as prayer obtain all things, shall it obtain that the sacrificing of your son to God, shall be accepted of him as holy and lawfull worship? Mr. Baxter saith excellently upon this subject. A thing must be first lawfull, before it be sanctified; God sanctifieth not sin in, or to any. See the Argument 1 Cor. 7. learnedly and solidely vindicated by him, so as the dispute is at an end now.
Q. 5. What holiness is it that is called federal, or Covenant holiness which is in Infants?
Ans. It is not so much personall holinesse (though it may so
be called, because the person is a Church member,
separated from the world to God) as
holinesse of the seed, Society, Family, or Nation, which is derived from father
to son, as if the father be a free man of such a City, that priviledge is so
personall, as it is by the Law hereditarie freedome derived from father to son,
if the father have jus ad media salutis
right to the means of salvation, so hath the son. Hence this was first
domestical, God made the Covenant
with Abraham and his family: I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed,
Gen. 17. it was extended to him, not as a father only, but as to the head
of the family; the children of Servants born in Abrahams family were to be circumcised and to be instructed as
having right to the means of salvation. Gen.
17.12. He that is eight dayes old shall
be circumcised among you, every man-child in your Generations (so it is
Generation-holinesse) he that is born in
the house, or bought with money of any stranger, that is not of thy seed.
So God showes clearly that in Abraham he chosed the Nation and the
house, Gen. 18 19. I know Abraham, that he will command his children (that is too narrow a Church
Visible) and his houshold after him, that
they shall keep the way of the Lord. 2. Afterward he choosed the Nation to
be a peculiar people holy to himself,
Deut. 7.6,7. but not with another new distinct Covenant, but in the same
Covenant. 8. But because the Lord loved
you, and would keep the oath that he had sworn to your fathers, to wit, to Abraham. Deut. 10.15. He chose their seed after them, even you,
above all people, not above all houses. Amos
3.2. You only have I known of all the
families of the earth. So the
Acts 10.33.47. Three thousand at
once, Acts 2. 39,40,41. The Jayler
and his house, Acts 16.33. servants
and friends. The houshold of Stephanas,
1 Cor. 1.16. was Baptized. And this
3. is holden forth as the Church, as the
houshold of Narcissus which are in the Lord, Rom. 16.11. Aquila and Priscilla, and all the Church at
their house. v. 5. The Church at the
house of Philemon, Phil. v.3. which teacheth that the Covenant holinesse is
of societies and house under the New Testament as in Abrahams house, and as Abrahams
house was Circumcised, so are whole houses under the New Testament Baptized. 4.
Paul aptly calls it the holinesse of
the lump, or Nation, and the first fruits, root-holinesse, the holinesse of the
root and the branches. Of the Olive Tree and the branches, Rom. 11. 16,17. (5.) The speciall intent of God in sending the word of the Covenant must evidence this; he
sends not the Gospel unto, and for the cause of one man, to bring him in, but
to gather a Church and his elect ones, by a visibly and audibly Preached
Covenant to a society, to a City; to Samaria.
Acts 8. To the Gentiles, Acts 13.
To all Nations, Mat. 28. 19,20. that
they and their children may have right to salvation and to the means thereof,
and to the Covenant, and therefore we are not curiously to inquire whether the
faith of the father be real or not, if the Gospel be come to the Nation, to the
House, to the Society. The Lord in one Abraham,
in one Cornelius, in one Jayler, (whom he effectually converts as
far as we can gather from the Scriptures) choises the race, house, society,
nation, and gives them a Covenant-holinesse, the mans being born where the call
of God is, does the turn, as much as
the faith of the Parent. For by the root is not necessarily meant the Physicall
root the father. For Abraham was not
the Physicall root and father, nor Cornelius
of all the servants and friends in the house. But if a friend be in the house,
or society, and professe the Gospel, he and his obtain right to Baptism and the
means of salvation. But as touching real holinesse, it is not derived from a
beleeving father, to make the son a beleever, Scripture and experience say the
contrair. Nor 2. is internall and effectuall confederacie with God, that, by which one is a son of
chosen: A chosen father may have a reprobate son. 2. Election to life is not of nations or houses or societies, but of single persons. It is not said, before the nation had done good or evill, I chosed this nation all and whole, not this, but I loved this man, not this man.
Q. What is the formall reason and ground that any hath right to Baptism?
Ans. If we speak of a passive right, if the Eunuch beleeve, Act. 8. and if such have received the Spirit, Acts 10. they may receive baptism, The Eunuch moves not the Question whether Philip should sin in baptizing him or not. The Eunuch was troubled to make sure his own, not Philips Conversion. They who bring that Argument, [foreign] Acts 8. and that, Mark 16. to prove that only such should be baptized, who beleeve actually and are come to age: They prove that the Church sinneth, if they baptize any, but such as are predestinated to life and really beleeve. For the faith that Philip asked for, was reall, with all the heart, not as the faith of Simon Magus: And the faith, Mark 16.15. is real saving faith, that brings salvation; he that beleeves is saved. 2. It can not be visible faith only, for that is in Simon Magus, he doth visibly so beleeve and is baptized. Yet upon that faith he was not saved, being in the gall of bitternesse (3.) He that beleeves not, is damned. The meaning must be, he that beleeves not savingly is damned: Or then he that beleeves not visibly, as Magus, and Judas, is damned, but this is most false, for Peter beleeves not as Judas, and yet he is not damned: Or then the meaning must be, he that beleeveth both really, savingly, and also professedly and visibly, is saved. And that is true, but it conclude that none are to be baptized, but both real and visible believers. 4. If it be true that none are to be baptized but Covenanted ones, as Acts 2.39. And if none be Covenanted ones under the New Testament, but real beleevers and such as are predestinated to life, as our Anabaptists teach from Rom. 9. then must the Church without warrant of the Word baptize Magus, Demas, Judas. (5.) Then must also all Judea; all the Generations of vipers baptized have been both real and visible beleevers, for they were all baptized, Mat. 3.3,4. Mark. 1.5. Luke 1.7.21. Let Independents consider this, and what D. Fuilk, and Mr. Cartwright,
Paræus, Calvin, Beza; and our Divines speak on these places against the auricular confession of all the huge multitude. (6.) It is a wonder that any man should dream that the Eunuch made a case of conscience, Acts 8. whether it was lawfull to Philip to baptize, and not whether he himself did beleeve and could worthily receive the seal, Act. 8. 36. here is water (saith he) [foreign] (7.) So none can warrantably baptize any but persons dying in faith, and its not certain these have the faith that is, Acts 8.37. Mar. 16.16. But for the formall warrand of such as baptize: neither are the aged as the aged, nor Infants as Infants to be baptized; for so all the aged and all Infants even of Pagans are to be baptized. Nor 2. are all in Covenant, to be baptized: For such as are only really and invisibly in Covenant, and do make no profession of Christ at all, are not warrantably by the Church to be baptized. Only these whether old or young that are tali modo visibili federati, such as professedly and visibly in Covenant, and called, Acts 2. 39. are warrantably baptized. Hence they must be so in Covenant, as they be called by the word of the Covenant, for they cannot be baptized against their will, Luke 7.29.30.
Q. What warrand is there, Act. 2.39. for Infant Baptisme?
Ans. I shall not contend for the actuall baptizing of them at that instant. But every one of you be baptized [foreign] father and sons. Why? the promise is to you and to your children, break the Text into an hundred pieces, and blood it as men please, the Genuine Thesis which cannot be neglected, is, These to whom the promise of the Covenant does belong, these should be baptized, [foreign] But the promise of the Covenant is to you and to your children. Ergo, you and your children should be baptized. The assumption is the expresse words of Peter and the Proposition is Peters. Every one of you be baptized, [foreign] for to you is the promise of the Covenant. Calvin, Bullinger, Brentius, Gualther clear it. 2. Who they are, who are in the nearest capacity to be baptized, he explaines, when he showeth, that the Covenant promise is made to these who are far off, to the Gentiles, whom the Lord shall call, then all that are under the call and offer of Christ in the Preached Gospel, as Prov. 9. 1,2,3,4. Math. 22
bid them come to
the wedding, Luke
14. 16, 17, 18. &c. are
externally in Covenant, and such to whom the Covenant is made, and should be
baptized, its presumed they give some professed consent to the call and do not
right down deny to come, else they should be baptized against their will. 3. Calvine showes Acts 2. 39. that the Anabaptists
in his time, said, the promise was made
to Believers only, but the Text saith, it
is made to you and to your children, to infants, to the children of the Prophets and of the Covenant
made with the fathers, Acts 3.25. Now what ground doc Anabaptists give that all infants believe, or that some believe,
since to them, their children were as Pagans
without Christ, without the Covenant? if to the
children when they come to age and shall believe? but what need to adde,
and to your believing Children? for
these are not children but men of age, their fathers and they both being
believers. Now Peter sets down two
ranks, the aged who heard the word with
gladnesse, and were pricked in the
heart, v. 37.41. and the children,
and to both the promise is made, and what ground is their to exclude sucking
children? for the word, Acts 2. 39.
is Math. 2.18. 1 Cor. 7.14. where sure the word is taken for sucking children of
whose actuall faith the Scripture speaks not. 2. The promise is to you and to your children, can have no other sense
then, the promise and word of the Covenant is preached to you and to your
children in you, and this is to be externally in Covenant, both under the Old
and New Testament. If it have another sense it must be this, the Lord hath internally Covenanted with you
the 3000, who have heard the word and with your children, and you are the
spirituall seed, and sons of promise, predestinate to life eternall: as
is made in the preached Gospel to you. Then it cannot be
denyed, but the promise is to all the
Reprobate in the Visible Church whether they believe or not, for Christ is
preached and promises of the Covenant are preached to Simon Magus, to judas and
all the Hypocrites who stumble at the
Word, to all the Pharisees, as is
clear, Math. 13. 20,21,22,23. Acts 13. 44,45. Acts 18. 5,6. Math.
21.43, 1 Pet. 2.7,8. (3.) The
promise, I will be your God, and ye shall
be my people, must be one way expounded in the Old Testament, to wit, you are externally only in Covenant with
God. But in the New Testament, it must have this meaning, I wil be your God, 2 Cor. 6.16. that is, you are all predestinate to life,
and the sons, by promise, and the spirituall seed, to whom I say, I will be
your God: But so it may well be said, there were no internall Covenanters
in the Old Testament, and there be none but only internall Covenanters in the
New Testament, so that when the Lord sayeth, Rev. 11.15. The Kingdomes of
the earth are mine, and my sons. He must say, the Kingdomes,
to the Gentiles by all the Prophets was a ceremony
removed now in Christ. Yea 3. externall Covenanting, and adopting, and choising
so. For the four pence ought not, by this Covenant, to be given to him, except he work twelve hours: but he cannot, without palpable falshood, say, I have broken no Covenant, in not working twelve hours: For though I consented to the Covenant, and began to work an hour, yet the promise was to be simply, but to me as working twelve hours; but there is neither face nor faith in this Answer: For the fulfilling of the Covenant is only to give four pence to John, if he work twelve hours; But the promise and Covenant was made to him, and he hath foully broken, Yea a conditionall Covenant agreed unto and accepted, is a Covenant, if we shall distinguish between a Covenant, in its essence and nature, and a Covenant broken or fulfilled, a Covenant or threatning, is a Covenant and threatning oblidging Adam, if it shall be agreed unto, by silence, as Adam accepted the threatning, Gen. 2. 17. by silence, and Professours within the Visible Church, by their professing of the Doctrine of the Gospel or Covenant of Grace, their receiving of the seals and professed hearing of the Word, are under the Covenant of Grace, and engadge themselves to obey commands, promises, threatnings, and therefore promises are as properly made to them. Acts 2.39. as commands, and threatnings, exhortations, invitations, and Gospel requests are made to them. But tho the Anabaptists ignorantly confound the promise, and the thing promised; the Covenant, and benefits Covenanted. The promise is to you, and so are the commands, & threatnings, whether ye beleeve or not, the command is to you, and layes an obligation on you, whether ye obey or obey not, and the threatnings are to you, whether ye transgress, or transgresse not. It is true, indeed, the promise, that is, the blessing promised, righteousnesse and eternall life is not given to you, untill ye first beleeve. Object. Is not the promise made the same way to the aged as to the children, and the same thing required of both: The promise is to you and to your children. But the promise is made to the aged only, if they actually beleeve. Ergo, the promise is made to the children only, if they actually beleeve, and so not to Infants. Answ. Neither proposition nor assumption can bear weight. For the proposition, when God saith, I will be thy God O Abraham, and the God of thy seed. Is it needfull
that God require the same conditions, that is actuall beleeving, that he may save Father Abraham, and also actuall beleeving from hearing the word of the Covenant Preached from all Infants born of Abraham and dying in Infancy, or then all these Infants so dying must be eternally damned? Nay. We beleeve many Infants (we reserve to the Holy and Glorious Lord his liberty of election and reprobation, Rom. 9.11,12.) among the Jews were saved by the Covenant of Grace, though they died Infants. And this we condemn in Anabaptists, that they show no revealed way of God of saving Infants of beleeving Parents dying in Infancy, more then of saving Pagans and their Infants, for to them both are alike without the Covenant of Grace and without Christ; and therefore beleeving Parents have no word of faith or of the Gospel to pray for the salvation of their Children dying in Infancie, for such prayers have neither warrant in the Covenant of Works, nor in the Covenant of Grace, by their way. And yet that we are to pray, is to be gathered from Gen. 19.18. 2 Sam, 12.16. Job 1.5. Mark 10.16. Psal. 28.9. and if we pray for their salvation, they must be saved by either Law or Gospel. Its not enough, to say that we may pray for savages that never heard of the Gospel, nor of the Covenant of Grace, that they may be saved. For seeing there is no name under Heaven by which men may be saved, but by the Name of Jesus, Acts 4.12. Joh. 14.6. There is no other warrand of praying for such, then that God would send them the Gospel; and since Christ prayed for Infants and blessed them, which is a praying for them, Gen. 48.15,16. Deut. 33.1.6,7,8. &c. Eph. 1.2. Gal. 1.3. 1 Cor. 1.3. 1 Tim. 1.2. 2 Tim. 1.3. See Mar. 10.16. he must own them as blessed in Christ in whom all the Nations of the earth are blessed, and so Covenanted with God in Christ.
2. It is false that the promise is made only to the aged, upon condition of actuall beleeving. 1. It is made to their children expresly in the Text, and for the way of their beleeving, we leave it to the Lord. Nor is it true, that the promise is made to the aged, upon condition of beleeving. The promise is made to them absolutely, whether they beleeve or not. But the blessing of the promise and Covenant of Grace is given and bestowed only conditionally,
if they beleeve. The promise is absolutely made: its called conditionall from the thing conditionally given.
Obj. But is not this an approven distinction, that persons are within the Covenant, either externally, professedly, visibly, or internally, really, or according to the intention of God? Ergo, such as are externally within the Covenant, are not really & indeed within the Covenant of Grace.
Ans. The Adverbe (really) relates to the reall fruit of the fulfilled Covenant, and so such as are only externally within the Covenant, are not really within the Covenant, for God never directed, nor intended to bestow the blessing Covenanted, nor grace to perform the condition of the Covenant upon them? But they are really Covenanted and engadged by their consented profession to fulfill the Covenant. And as the Commands and threatnings of the Covenant of Grace lay on a reall obligation, upon such as are only externally in Covenant, either to obey or suffer, so the promise of the Covenant imposes an ingagement and obligation upon such to beleeve the promise, but some times, we say the promises of the Covenant of Grace are not really made to the Reprobate within the Visible Church, because God intends and decrees to, and for them, neither the blessing promised, nor the saving grace to fulfill the condition or to beleeve. And therefore these words are figurative, Heb. 8.10. This is the Covenant that I will make with the house of Israel, I will write my Law in their minds, &c. that is, this is the speciall and principall Covenanted blessing, I will give them a new heart: which must not be called a simple prediction, though a prediction it is, but it is also a real promise made absolutely to the elect, which the Lord fulfills in them: And this is called the Covenant. Because 1. they are no better then non-Covenanters upon whom the Lord bestowes not this part and blessing of the Covenant. 2. The truth is, the promise of a new heart is not made to the Visible Church, which is only Visible: but to the Elect and Invisible Church. And if Anabaptists shall expone these words, Acts 2.39. The promise of a new heart is made to you and to your children , upon condition that you and your children beleeve, which they cannot do untill first they have a new heart, its as good as Peter had said, God promiseth to you
and to your children grace to beleeve, and a new heart to obey him, upon condition that you first beleeve. And that is, Gods promise to you to beleeve upon condition that ye beleeve, which is ridiculous, and therefore we cannot say that this promise of a new heart is made to all that are commanded to beleeve and repent and be baptized. For Elect and Reprobate and all are under these commands, if they be members of the Visible Church: But the promise of a new heart is not made to all within the Visible Church.
Quest. How then? Must the promise of a new heart be here excluded? And shall nothing be meant in the Word, but a promise of forgivenesse and life is made to you and your Children.
Ans. I should judge it hard, to say, that were the only promise here made, the promise of a new heart is made to you all, therefore repent and be baptized. The Antecedent is not true. 2. Therefore because Peter speaks unto, and of a mixed multitude, Fathers, Children, Elect and Reprobate, who must first understand, the promise of life and forgivenesse is made to you. Ergo, all come to age, repent and be baptized. And because the promise is made to your children, therefore let them be baptized. And 3. the promise of new heart is not to be excluded, because there were in the company to whom, and of whom the Apostle Peter speaks, many Elect, in whom the old Prophesie, Jer. 31. Ezek. 11. was to be fulfilled; For he saith, The promise is made to as many as the Lord shall call; to the Gentiles, it were a sense too narrow, to exclude that promise, and therefore, as the great promise, I will be thy God, and the God of thy seed (which chiefly is meant, Acts 2.39.) requires not the same condition in fathers and infants, nor the same condition in fathers, wives, hewers of wood, officers and Commanders, litle ones, and such as were not born, Deu. 29. with whom the Covenant is made. For the same faith in fathers and in infants, and faith working in the same duties cannot be required of husbands, wives, Magistrates, and hewers of wood) so neither is the promise made the same way to fathers, children, Jews near hand, and Gentiles farre off, to Elect and Reprobate.
Q. How can the promise of the Covenant, to write the Law in
the heart, be made absolutely, and not to the Reprobate, but to the Elect only? For the Elect are only these to whom that promise is made, and yet the Reprobate are really in the Covenant of Grace and the promise is made to them, as hath been said.
Answ. It is no inconvenient that the Reprobate in the Visible Church, be so under the Covenant of Grace, as some promises are made to them, and some mercies promised to them conditionally, and some reserved speciall promises of a new heart, and of perseverance belong not to them. For all the promises belong not the same way, to the parties visibly and externally, and to the parties internally and personally in Covenant with God. So the Lord promiseth life and forgivenesse shall be given to these who are externally in the Covenant, providing they beleeve, but the Lord promiseth not a new heart and grace to beleeve, to these that are only externally in Covenant. And yet he promiseth both to the Elect.
Hence the Covenant must be considered two ways, in abstracto and formally, in the letter as a simple way of saving sinners, so they believe, so all within the Visible Church are in the Covenant of Grace, and so it contains only the will of precept. 2. In the concret, as the Lord caries on the Covenant in such and such a way, commensurably with the decrees of Election and Reprobation; As the Lord not only promises, but acts and ingraves the Law in the heart, commensurably with his decree of Election, so the Elect only are under the Covenant of Grace. The word tells of no condition or work, or act to be performed by any, which if he do he shall have a new heart: and therefore the promise of the ingraven Law in the heart, is not a simple promise made to the Covenanters as Covenanters, for so it should be a promise to all visible Covenanters (for visible Covenanters are essentially Covenanters) but it is both a promise and a prediction, yea a reall execution or an efficacious way of fulfilling the decree of Election to such and such chosen, and specially loved of God Covenanters.
2. A new heart hath a twofold consideration, one as a duety commanded. 2. As a blessing promised, as to the former, Ezech. 18.31. make you a new heart and a new spirit, Jer. 4.4. Circumcise your heart to the Lord, take away the foreskin of your
heart, ye men of
Q. Who are they, who are to believe God shall give them a new heart Ans. No man is positively to believe it while God work it in him, for no man is to believe that he is predestinated to Glorie, while he first have the effects thereof in him, the hid Manna, the white Stone, the new Name. But no man is to despare or to create fatall inferences that he is Reprobate, since God begins kindly with him with a Gospel call.
Considerations of the Arguments from Gen. 17. Mark 10. 15, 16. Luke 18. Math. 19. Rom. 11. for Infant Baptisme.
IF God be the God of Abraham and of his seed, Gen. 17. therefore every male child shall be entered in the Covenant, by the
initiall seal of Circumcision, and so women also who eat the Passeover, which the uncircumcised might not do: and Peter was sent to the Circumcision, that is, to all the Jews men and women, and so the women is some way in the men, and they might be circumcised in them upon the same gound, because the same promise is made to fathers and to children, must infants be baptized, Acts 2.39. 1. This is the Lords own Argument, Gen. 17.7. there were multitudes of differences between Circumcision and Baptisme as we grant, but in the substance nature and Theologicall essence, and in the formall effects they are the same. We grant that Christ revealed in Types, Sacrifices, to come, darkly offered may differ from Christ as clearly offered Preached without these already abolished shaddows and who is now come. Yet he is the same Saviour to them who believed in him then and now, Act. 10.43. Act. 15. 11. And we 2. argue not simply from the letter of the Covenant. I am your God. Ergo, be baptized, for one might reply. I am your God. Ergo, offer such beasts to me, it shall not follow, But I am your God, and the God of your seed offering to you the same Christ and righteousnesse that was offered to Abraham in the same Covenant: Ergo, all of you be baptized who are under the same Covenant. For,
1. Circumcision of the flesh was a seal of the Circumcision of the heart promised in the Covenant of Grace, Deut. 30.6. and of the cutting of the foreskin thereof, Jer. 4.4. Jer. 9.26. Ezech. 36,26,27. and baptisme is the same, Col. 2.11,12. Tit. 3.5.
2. Circumcision is a seal of the righteousnesse of faith, Rom. 4.11. so is baptisme, as 1 Pet. 3.21. Rom. 4.24.
3. Circumcision is a seal of the Covenant, and by a metonymic called the Covenant of God in the flesh, Gen. 17.7,13. so is baptisme a solemn installing of all Samaria, Acts 8. in the Christian Covenant, and so Acts 2. 39.
4. Circumcision is a solemne way of instituting any in the Church of Israel, so we are by one Spirit baptized into one body 1 Cor. 12. 12,13.
1. The command of Circumcising is as large as Covenanting, but that is with Abraham the father, and his seed, Acts 2.39. make the command of being Baptized, [foreign] every one of you be Baptized,
as large as the promise of the Christian Covenant, and call: For the promise is to you and to your children, and to as many as the Lord shall call.
2. The command supposes that all the Circumcised, the males of eight dayes old understand not the promise of the Covenant, the nature, use, signification, and end of the seal, and the command to be baptized, supposeth that the children to whom the Covenant promise is made do not understand the same as touching baptisme and the Covenant promise, Acts 2.39.
3. If the positive command be generall that all these in Covenant should be marked with the initiatorie seal of the Covenant: As Gen. 17. 7,8. I am thy God, and the God of thy seed: Therefore old and young be Circumcised, then there was no other command in particular, to baptize old or young, but the institution of Baptism in place of Circumcision needfull. As touching the application of it to persons, old or young, except the ground of externall Covenanting stand as warranting to administrate the seal to all, so Covenanted; Yea, and if there be a positive command and warrand in the New Testament to tender the Seal of Baptism to none but to the aged, that can give an account of their faith, and do actually beleeve; then should there be an expresse command in the New Testament concerning Baptism as concerning the Lords Supper, that every one before they be Baptized, try and examine themselves whether they savingly beleeve or not, before they be Baptized, otherwise they receive their own damnation, as in the Lords Supper, for self judging and self examination, if actuall beleeving and being internally in Covenant, as these in whose heart and inward part the Law of Grace must be ingraven, be the necessary condition required in all these to whom the Church can warrantably tender Baptism as the seal of the Covenant: And we require a positive command in the New Testament, see that ye Baptize none though they professe they be in Covenant, except such as can try and examine whether they savingly beleeve or not: and here Anabaptists must flee to the consequences of the Word and reasons drawn from the Covenant of Grace, as well as we, and an express command they cannot flee unto, nor is it in Old or New Testament: It should not move us, that Infants understand neither command
nor seal, nor Covenant, for the Argument is against the Holy Ghost, and they are oblidged to answer it; for Infants are as ignorant of the promises the speciall mysteries of the Gospel, as of Precepts of the Gospel. And yet the promises of the Covenant of Grace are expresly to Infants of the New Testaments Acts 2. 39. promise, [foreign], The Gospel promise made to Abraham, Gal. 3. 16. The Gospel and promise of righteousnesse of the Spirit of Life, Gal. 3.17,18,22,29. 23.28. Gal. 6.2. Rom. 18.104.22.168. Rom. 9.8. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 4.1. Heb. 6.12.15. Heb.8.6. Heb. 9. 14. 1 John 5.1. is made [foreign] to your children of the New Testament, to your Infants, if they beleeve (say they) 1. Can Infants actually beleeve? 2. Is not the promise so made to Turks, if they beleeve?
But it were an easier way to Anabaptists to say, infants under the New Testament are externally in Covenant, where as Parents beleeve, and members of the Church are followed with Covenant mercy, only because they understand not, and the administration is more spirituall under the New Testament, and faith more urged, God requires not the dipping of Infants in Rivers (a ceremony more onerous, more, truely, in women with child, virgins, diseased persons, in winter, in cold countreys, against the word, the second Command, the third, the fourth, the sixth, the seventh, then that it needs to be refuted) it being only a ceremony which they may well want. But now Infants of beleevers are casten out, for no fault, of the Covenant of Grace.
(2.) From Covenant mercy to the thousand Generation. Contrair to Gen. 17.7. Exod. 20. 5.
(3.) From Covenant-prayers and Church-prayers: Contrair to 1 Sam. 12. Ps. 28.9. Ps. 67. 1,2. Ps. 103 4,5.
(4.) From the blessing of the Lords Covenant-presence, who dwels in the Nation, in the Kingdom, Ps. 135.21. Ps. 132. 13,14. Rev. 11.15. Isa. 19.25. Isa. 2. 1,2,3. 2 Cor. 6.16. I will dwell in them, and walk in them, and be their God, and they shall be my people. 18. And I will be a father to you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord God Almighty. Though this be spoken to all the Covenanted people of God, yet are Infants casten out of the bosome of a Covenant Father and God?
(5.) Infants are debarred from Covenant-calling and gathering in under the wings of Christ: Contrair to Matth. 28. 19,20. Matth. 23.37. Psal. 147.19.20. and excluded from Gods Covenant-choise: Contrair to Deut. 7.6,7,8,9. 13,14. Deut. 10.15. and left being heirs of wrath, a prey to Satan.
(6.) They are Excommunicated from Covenant-blessings earthly, and the Tabernacle-protection promised in the Old and New Testament: Contrair to Deut. 28.4. Lev. 26.6,7.8,9. Psal. 22.214.171.124.26. Psal. 92.10. Psal. 112. 1,2,3. Ezech. 34.24,25,26. Ezech. 36.29.35,36,37. Ezech. 8.7,8. And in the New Testament. Matth. 6.27,28.33. 1 Tim. 4 8. Heb. 13. 5,6. which were nothing if our Heavenly Father provide bread, protection, safety, dwelling in the land, and our houses, to the fathers, but the children had no charter but to beggery, to the sword, to be devoured by wilde beasts and the diseases of Egypt: And the Infants have nothing from the Covenant but what Infants of Amaleck, and Babylon, 1 Sam. 15. 1,2. Ps. 137.5. and of Sodom have, Gen. 19.
(7.) They are members of Satan, of the Kingdom of the Prince of darkness, not members of Christs Body, since there be but two Kings, two Gods, Satan, 2 Cor. 4.4. Eph. 2 1,2. Eph. 6.12. Matth. 12.29. and Christ the King and Head of his body. And it is known that Infants within the Visible Church, suffer incursions of Devils, dreadfull diseases, death; and being without the Covenant, as Pagans; these evils must either be acts of revenging justice, and preparatorie to the judgement of eternall fire, or blessed in Christ: But if the former, they are damned, if the latter, what blessing is there without Christ?
(8.) Being without the Covenant. 1. Infants cannot be chosen and predestinate in Christ to salvation, as Eph. 1.4. Rom. 9.11. nor given to Christ to be saved Covenant-wayes, as John 17.2. John 6.39. nor loved from eternity, nor in time, as Arminians teach, and so must be carried in Christ to Heaven or Hell, or rather to a mid place, without God or providence, or decrees, or fore-knowledge, or counsel of God. 2. They being without the Gospel-Covenant, cannot be redeemed by Jesus Christ his Blood, but some other way: Contrair to Acts 4.12. 3. If Infants be born without sin, as Anabaptists teach, they die, and go either to Heaven,
and so Christ took not on him their nature, and is not their Saviour: or they go to everlasting torment, and yet never sinned, which is repugnant to Divine Justice: Or to some third place of which the Scripture speaks not. And yet the word saith, Rev. 20. 12. that the dead small and great shall stand before God, and shall be judged. And the Scripture saith Infants are capable of punishment, and of being cut off, and the Parents punished in them, and they bear Covenant-wrath in their Parents: As is clear in the seed of Jeroboam, of Achab, of others, Ezod. 20. 5. Gen. 17.14. 4. Neither remission of sins, Justification, nor life eternall, nor Sonship, nor Adoption in Christs suffering death, and in the Blood of the everlasting Covenant, can belong to Infants if they be without the Covenant.
9. Nor can children be capable of being blessed of Christ, or of his laying on of hands. As Mark 10. if they be not under the N. Test. capable of Covenant grace: And it is to be minded, that Covenanting Parents, Luke 18.
1. Such as came to him to be cured of their diseases, and beleeved him to be the Messiah, the Son of David, as the blind call him, Mat. 20. and the woman of Canaan, Mat. 15. Luk 18.15. [foreign] brought to him little Children, as Mat. 8.16. Mat. 9. 2. Luk. 4.40. they brought the sick.
2. The children were not diseased, nor possessed: And the Parents being desirous they might be blessed, as the event proved, it is clear they were not children of heathen, but members of the Visible Church.
3. [foreign] Of such is the Kingdom of God, Luk. 18.16. we cannot think that his meaning is of such as such, is the Kingdome of God, as if all Infants of Jew and Heathen, belonged as subjects to the Visible Church, for then the Infants of all Heathen should be Covenanted members of the Visible Church, and yet their Parents are without the Visible Church, and when they grow to age, they should without any scandall be Excommunicate, which were monstruous, nor can the Invisible Kingdom of God be of such, as if all Infants, because Infants were saved. Nor,
4. Can the taking of them be a meer Embleme that such were blessed, for so, beside that Doves and Lambs, for meeknesse are
capable of being taken in the armes of Christ and
blessed, Christ bids them, in all times coming, be suffered to come, and not
forbidden, v. 16. which saith he
desired the whole spece of Infants of the
5. He could not mean, that only Infants predestinate to glory, should be suffered to come: For the saith indifferently [foreign] suffer little children to come: Now he should then have given marks to discern predestinate children and suffer them. (2.) And receive them only as Disciples, in my Name, Mar. 6.36,37. (3.) He should have laid his hands upon some Infants, as predestinate to glory, and forbidden others to come. And the Parents should have known what children are predestinate to life, and should come, and what not.
6. The Text evidences that the
Disciples had a prejudice and a carnall one, at infants, thinking, they
understood nothing of Christ and of the
7. Nor was it extraordinary, when Christ said suffer little children to come, but he would have the spece instated members of such a Kingdom. Ergo. some of the kind must be saved and examples must be verified (saith Mr. Cobbet judiciously) in some particulars.
8. Of such is the Kingdome of God, of such in Covenant relation is the Kingdome of God, of such subjects. For if Christs reason be, of such for humilitie, meeknesse, want of malice, and invy, as 1 Pet. 2. 1,2,3. Math. 18. Psal. 131. 1, 2. is the Kingdome of God: he must mean by the Kingdome of God, the Kingdome of Glory and the triumphing Church, this sense is refused by Anabaptists. 2. The Infants of Pagans and of all men, by nature, within and without the Church are as well marked resemblances of converts, as they. And we must say that Christ would have taken
in his arms, and blessed all the Pagan Infants, and when
they grow to age they should be for no fault, but for age only. Excommunicate
from the blessing, for Pagan Infants as well resemble humility and
harmlessenesse (if only the personall qualifications of converts, and heart
converts, not the Covenant and Church holinesse of visible Professours, be here
meant) as Infants within the
9. There was no other designe and purpose in Christ, in that emphatick expression, forbid them not to come [foreign] Math. 19.14. [foreign] Luke 18. 16. to me their Saviour, as well as the Saviour of the aged, but to hold forth the common interest of the whole spece of infants ([foreign]) within the Visible Church, their Covenant interest in Christ, for there is no imaginable reason, but the conceit of want of understanding (the prejudice of Anabaptists only) why the Disciples should have aimed to debar them or any poor sinners from accesse to the Saviour of sinners.
10. Christ took them in his armes, layed his hands on them, blessed them. Now this was a personall reall favour bestowed upon infants, had infants been meer symbolick and doctrinall resemblances of the humilitie of reall converts, and the young ones as much without the Covenant as Pagans, and as uncapable of Covenant grace and Covenant seals, because void of actuall faith now under the new Gospel administration, as horses or beasts, let the opposites of their Baptisme show what sort of blessing it was, that Christ bestowed upon them, if it be not: 1. Of more value then Jacobs blessing of Ephraim and Manasseh, or at least as reall, and certain, Christ the Lord from heaven must as Soveraigne, who had power to curse the fig tree and it withered, by his Soveraigne power have blessed, in them, the whole race of infants in the Visible Church, and declared them Covenanted Church members under the New Testament in this eminent act of blessing the children and in commanding that all such might have free accesse to him as King, since the young ones were Subjects of the Kingdome of God, as well as the aged, and expressely forbids, that in time to come, they be hindered to come to him, Mark 10.14. Luk. 18.16. Math. 19.14. and three Evangelists are three sufficient witnesses. (2.) Christ the Lord is the Supreme and Soveraigne Lord of blessing and cursing:
for in him all the
Nations of the earth, and with them, young ones a considerable part of the
Covenanted Nations, must be blessed,
(3.) If Isaac blessed Jacob, and he must be blessed, Gen. 27. 29. 33. and Jacob blessed the twelve Tribes, Gen. 49. 28. and Moses
the man of God blessed
have bestowed upon them the blessing of the Covenant of Grace, Gal. 3.14. Heb. 6.14. let it be the blessing of remission and life, or reall right to the Kingdome of God, its a blessing of the Covenant. 6. The faith of the parents that brought them is holden forth, Math. 19. 13. Then were little children brought unto him, that he might lay his hands on them and pray: then had they faith in Christ, that his praying and blessing should be availeable to infants, its a conjecture that they came with a may be, or as Mr. Cobbet well sayeth, a faith grounded upon a possibilitie of Election separated from the Covenant, that is secret, and the Covenant revealed, and so this, not election abstracted from that, can be the ground of faith, Deut. 29. 29. and when Christ saith, Math. 18. 4,10. that little ones Angels behold the face of his Father, and the Holy Ghost saith, Heb. 1.13. that Angels are Minstring Spirits, [foreign]. For these that shall by heritage or lot injoy salvation. Its clear infants have their share of salvation, and by Covenant it must be. As also the blessed seed is promised to Adam before he have a child, and to his seed: To Seth, Japhet, Isaac, Jacob, Abraham, when Cainan, Cham, Ishmael, Esau, Abrahams Idolatrous house, to David, when his brethren are refused, and to these as heads of Generations, when contrare Generations, and the houses of Cainan, Cham, Ishmael, are rejected: Hence the house of Israel, the seed of Israel, the seed of Jacob, and there shall be added to the Gentiles, Isa. 49. who shall bring in to the Church their sons and their daughters upon their shoulders, 22. Isa. 54.1. Sing O barren—for moe are the children of the desolate then of the maried wife saith the Lord, Isa. 60.4. Lift up thine eyes round about, and see, all they gather themselves about, they shall come to thee: thy sons shall come from far, and thy sons shall be nourished at thy side. Israel marying and Israel according to the flesh is the holy seed, Neh. 7.61. Neh. 9.2. the holy seed have mingled with the heathen. 1 Chron. 16.13. O ye seed of Israel his servants, ye children of Jacob whom he hath chosen, be mindfull of his Covenant. And this holinesse by externall Covenanting is extended to the Gentiles, 1 Cor. 7.14. But now are your children holy; and its holinesse the Jews to be called in, Rom. 11.16. If the first fruit be holy, the lump is also holy:
and if the root be holy, so are also the
branches. So it is prophecied, Isa.
61.9. Their seed shall be known among the
Gentiles, and their off-spring among the people: All that see them shall
acknowledge them, that they are the seed that the Lord hath blessed. 6. But ye
shall be named the Priests of the Lord, (holy by Covenant as was Aarons house, because in Covenant
visibly with God) men shall call you the
Ministers of our God: Ye shall eat the riches of the Gentiles; and in their
glory shall ye boast your selves. Isa. 62.2. Thou shalt be called by a new name, which the mouth of the Lord hath
named. v. 12. And they shall call
them the holy people, the Redeemed of the Lord: And thou shalt be called,
Sought out. A City not forsaken. Isa. 65.22. As the dayes of a tree, are the dayes of my people: and mine Elect
(by called) shall long injoy the work of
their hands. Sure he Prophesies of a visibly Covenanted people under the
New Testament: For he adds, v. 23. They
shall not labour in vain, nor bring forth in trouble: for they are the seed of
the blessed of the Lord, and their off-spring with them. Now to any Godly
Reader, there is here. 1. a Prophesie to be fulfilled of the Gentiles brought
in, as is clear, Isai. 61. 1,2,3,4.
Christ, Luke 4. applyes that Text to
himself. And 9. Their seed shall be known
among the Gentiles. Isa. 62.2. The
Gentiles shall see thy Righteousnesse. And for Chapter 65. 1,2,3,4. Paul expounds it of the in-coming of the
Gentiles, Rom. 9.24.26.
seed of the blessed
of the Lord, and their off-spring with them. Jer. 23.22. As the Host of Heaven cannot be numbred, neither the sand of the sea
measured, so will I multiply the seed of David, What seed? The visible
seed: And the Levits that Minister unto
me, will I multiply: He alludes to the promise made to Abraham, of multiplying his seed, Gen. 13.15. Gen. 15.5. Gen. 2.17. And this promise made to Abraham (saith Calvin) belongs to them all, and he would have them not to doubt of
the restitution of the people to their own Land. Now the people and Levits, and
house of David were never so
multiplied in the Jews, after the deliverance from
1 King. 11. 2. Ezra 9.2,12. Nehem. 13.23. Judg.
3.6,7. Judg. 42. 3. Except there be
some middle between a cursed and a blessed seed, a seed in the Church, and in
Covenant, and the seed of the Serpent, of Heathen, without the Covenant. 2. A
middle between the Kingdom of darknesse, of Satan, and the
Answ. They are become the Kingdoms of the Lord, not only because they are truely converted, but because they are the chosen of God in the Office house of Christ, and Christ reigns over them by the Scepter of his Word whom he is to convert. And external Covenanting with God is of it self free Grace and a singular favour bestowed of God, Psal. 147.19,20. Deut. 5.1,2. Mat. 21.42,43. Luke 14.16.21.
2. It is free Grace that God will have hypocrites and real infidels to beget children to him that are internally in Covenant with him; and fills up the number of the Elect by Reprobate Parents who are instrumentall to the in-coming in the world, and into the Visible Church, of many Heirs of Glory: and in so doing there is a Church right communicated from Reprobate Parents to their Children, that are Heirs of Glory.
3. Externall Covenanting goes before internall Covenanting, as the means before the end, and the cause before the effect: for
faith comes by hearing of a sent Preacher,
after them. See the same order, Ezech. 11. 19, 20. though the words ly not in that order there and here. And Heb. 8. 10. 5. God is not then a God to any, because they have a clean heart, and the Law ingraven therein, for then they should be in Covenant, before they be in Covenant; And so this is true (because he is our God in truth and righteousnesse, therefore we beleeve) but this is not true (because we beleeve, therefore he is our God) except we argue from the effect to the cause.
But to return: Calvine on Matth. 19.14. We hence gather that
the grace of Christ is extended to Infant age, for whole mankind had perished.
Beza, Infants are also comprehended in the
free Covenant. Pareus, its unlawfull to debarre these from baptism and the
Church, whom Christ bids come to him, &c.
Obj. But Christ commands not they be
baptized. Answ. Nor doth Christ in this place command the Parents to bring them up in the nurture and admonition
of the Lord: Nor speak the Evangelists of any Parentall duty; shall we from
that conclude, it was not Christs mind that the Parents take care of the fourth
& fifth Command? Pareus saith, it
was neither time nor place. Mat.
28.19. he bids baptize all. 3. He who prayed for them, blessed them, laid his
hands upon them, invited them to bring Infants to him (of all which Infants
were as uncapable, as of the use and ends of Baptism and of actuall confession
of sin and of beleeving) judged they ought be Baptized. 4. Its never to be
found where any are Baptized, but the Head of the Family is Baptized: And when
we read that houses were Baptized, 1 Cor.
1.16. Acts 16.33. There is no more
ground to say Infants are not Baptized, then to say when the Lord saith to Abraham, Gen. 12.2. I will blesse thee, and make thy name great. And 22.17. in blessing I will blesse thee. And when
the Lord saith, Isai. 19.25. blessed by Ægypt my people; he should
mean, he would blesse Abraham, not
his seed, and that he minds to blesse the aged of Ægypt, and of Assyria,
but not their seed and infants, because they understand not what a blessing of
God means; and yet the fruit of the womb and the seed are said to be blessed, Psal. 37.26. Deut. 7.13. and God so intreated to blesse
not be that God would blesse the young Infants and
The Jews, Rom. 11.16. are holy root and
branch first fruit and lump, fathers and children, and the Jews shall he
brought in again. Why? The Generation to come in is holy, for the Covenant made with their fathers. Well say Anabaptists, but notwithstanding of the
federall holinesse you talk of,
Ans. But these to come in, and to be re-ingrafted are holy, intentionally, in the decree of God, because of their beloved fathers, and when God shall call them, the same Covenant made with Abraham gives them right; and these branches not in being, and the unborn Generation are only intentionally holy by this federall holinesse, and they shall be actually holy, when they shall be born, but it followeth not, but the present Generation not broken off through unbeleef, as Paul and others called by the name of election, Rom. 11.7. have right, because of their fathers. For God hath not cast off his people, whom he hath fore-known. For I am an Israelite (saith Paul, v. 1,2.) of the seed of Abraham, and there are thousands of Jews now hid, as in Elias his time, who bowed not their knee to Baal; but the body of them, the great bulk is fallen away and cut off. Hence the Jews are holy federally,
and not holy, beloved of the fathers federally, and not beloved federally, holy and keep Church-right to Baptism, and Ordinances, in regard of the sounder and invisible part: And not holy federally nor having any Church right to Baptism, in regard of the wilfully broken off body, that crucified Christ and stand to their fathers bloody deed, these have no more Church-part nor portion to Ordinances, then Simon Magus, Acts 8. notwithstanding of their carnall discent from Abraham.
And when God made the Covenant
with Abraham, Gen. 17. and renewed
the same, Deut. 29. he made it with
these who were not there standing, v.
14,15. not with you only, &c, but
virtually, radically with us Gentiles, who were not then born, as touching the
substantialls, for Priest-hood, Law-service, Types, Sacrifices, Circumcision,
yea Baptism, the Lords Supper, Pastors, Teachers, Elders to rule, Deacons, were
all accidents, to the substance of the Covenant, to wit, to beleeve in Christ
and to obtain righteousnesse and life by Christ: As the same way to the same
City hath other hedges, way-marks, bridges, this year which it had not 500.
years agoe. And look as a father that knowes he shall beget so many hundreth
sons who shall all be Kings, and have the same royall inheritance, writeth a
Charter intituling them all, before they be born to the same inheritance: They
have all virtuall and radicall right, ere they be born, with the first heir;
And when they are born, he makes not another Covenant with them. So Deut. 29.14,15. he sayeth not, He shall
make another Covenant with these when they shall be born: but I make a Covenant with you, and with these
that are not here, not born. Hence by way of excellency he calleth it the Covenant, the Covenant of the Lord,
Jer. 22.9. Deut. 4.23. Josh 23.11. My
Covenant, saith the Lord, Gen. 17.7, 9,10. Exod. 19.5. Psal. 50.16. His Covenant, Psal. 105.8. He remembred his Covenant for ever,
Psal. 111. 5. He will remember his
Covenant for ever, 5.9. His Covenant
with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, 2 King. 13. 23. When Hazael King of
oath $$$ Jacob, 1 Chron. 16. 16,17. Psal. 105.9. Jer. 11.5. Dan. 9. Luke 1.73. Heb. 6. 15,17. and to the fathers, the ever lasting Covenant, Gen. 9.16. Gen. 17. 9,13. which relates to Adam also, Levit. 24.8. 2 Sam. 23.5. made unto David, 1 Chro. 16.17. Psal. 105.10. Isa. 61. 8. Heb. 13.20. which cannot be, if there be so many Covenants, as some speak of: the new Covenant, and the better Covenant, Heb. 8. 8,13. Heb 12. 20. Jer. 3. 81. Heb. 7.22. which newnesse and excellency is all expounded of the Mediator now God, the Word made Flesh, Heb. 7.c.8.c.9.
And we would remember that
Hence by diverse Arguments he proves that the Jewes shall be brought in again to Christ 1. From four ends of the Jews fall v. 11. (2.) To provoke them to come in, v. 11. (3.) That some may be saved. 4. For the riches of the worlds salvation. Whence the magnifying of Pauls Ministry, v. 13, 14. 2. Arg. From the great fruit; If their fall be the riches of the world, their incoming again must be the resurrection from the grave of the buried unbeleeving world, v. 15.
3. Arg. They must be brought in. These who are holy separated
from the world for the Covenant-call of God, must be brought in again: But so is Israel. The Assumption he proves by parts. 1. The masse and root of Israel is holy, the Fathers were the Covenanted visible stock, line, root, as all the Old Testment sayeth: then the posterity, the first fruits, the branches partly born, partly to be born, must be holy Covenant-wayes: The tree, root and branches are holy and of the same nature; Therefore the branches have right to Christ, to the Covenant, to Baptisme and the seals. Hence Anabaptists, without all reason, say that he speaks not of federall and externall holinesse, but of reall, internall and true holinesse, only of the invisible body predestinated to life: for though invisible holinesse cannot be excluded, except we exclude the holinesse of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who were without doubt a part of the root: yet he must be taken to speak of that holinesse of the Covenant and Church, as made visible and of the visible collective body of the Jews, not of only reall and invisible holinesse. 1. Because this was true in the dayes of Elias, If the root be holy the branches are holy; And it is a New Testament-Truth of perpeall verity, If the Fathers be holy so must the Sons. The Fathers have Church-right to Circumcision, to Baptism, to the Passeover, and to the Lords Supper, so have the Children: but it is most false of the invisible mysticall body and root only, and of reall and internall holinesse; For neither in Old or New Testament is it true, If the Fathers be predestinated to life, justified and sanctified and saved, so must the Children be. Ishmael, Esau, Absalom, and all the world of Hypocrites called from their prophanenesse Sodom and Gomorah, Isai. 1. 10. uncircumcised in heart, as Egypt, Moab and Ammon. Jerem. 9.26. as the Philistines, Amos 9.7. Then should that (2.) Distinction of Jewes in the heart, and inward, and of Jews in the flesh, Rom. 2. 28. and of the children of the flesh, that are not of the spiritual seed, and of the children of the promise, Rom. 9.7.8. and of the persecuting children of the bond woman not justified by faith, and of the children of the promise, Gal. 4.23,24. &c. fall to the ground. Yea 3. If by the root and the lump be understood only Believers and chosen to life the whole Israel, which is as the sand of the sea, should be saved, whereas the Word of God saith, a remnant only shall be
saved, [foreign] LXX. Tecla. A part taken out shal be saved, Rom. 9.27. Isai. 10. 22,23. Hos. 1.10. 4. By the branches must be meant all the visible body of the Jews, old and young. Now if Anabaptists give us a Visible Church of the Jewes of all reall believers, even the branches and Infants, (which shall hardly! be proven by the Scripture) these infants at least being visible Believers may lawfully be baptized, being both internally and visible, and externally in Covenant. For this Scripture is expresly expounded by them of reall and inherent holinesse, and so Infants must be reall Believers and in Covenant. Ergo they must be baptized: What can be replied is not imaginable: but they have not actuall faith, and possibly that is not known to the Church. But this Scripture saith that the branches and root both are holy. 2. It shall be new Divinity, that none are to be baptized but such as are under the actuall exercise of their faith, a thing that cannot be discerned by the Church, in these that are come to age. 5. Here shall also be this new Divinity, that predestination to life and glory must be propagated and derived from the lump to the first fruits, from the root and parents to the branches and children.
5. Its against the whole current of the Text, that Paul spake abstractly of the only invisible body really sanctified, and not of the visible body. For 1. The body invisible is an elect seed that cannot fall away; But the body that here he speaks of are such, of which a part are hardned and blinded, and under the spirit of slumber, and a part elect and chosen. 7. The election have obtained, the rest are hardned, and of such a body, compared with the body in the time of Elias, of which multitudes fell away, slew the Prophets, digged down the Altars, and a good number were beleevers, that bowed not their knee to Baal, and so is the body now, saith, Paul, 1,2,3,4,5. [foreign], which is a mixt body. 3. He speaks of the body that is fallen and stumbled, v. 11. and these whom he preaches unto, to provoke them to a holy emulation, to come in to Christ, by the incoming of the Gentiles, v. 13, 14. which is sure a visible body, and which shall be ingraffed in again, v. 23. which includes a visible body of diverse generations. 4. Yea he must speak of a Nationall election and externall calling, as Deut. 7. 7,8,9. Deut. 10.15. Psal. 132.13. Isai. 41. 2. Not
of a personall election of some certain persons who fell, were blinded, rejected fully and totally in their persons, and received in and ingraffed as sound believers again: for the Scripture speaks of no such boating in and out, but of a huge numerous body of which some fell, some stand and includes diverse generations. 5. The collective visible body of Jews and Gentiles are such as Paul preacheth unto, v. 13,14. such as are ingraffed in in the room of the Jews, and ingraffed into the Olive of the visible Body, and partake of the fatnesse Of Ordinances, Baptism, Covenant-comforts, promises. Now if any say that this proves not that Infants are ingraffed, then must they say that Infants of the Jews before Christ partaked of no fatnesse of the Covenant, Circumcision, Blessings, Presence, Protection. 2. That they were not broken off with their fathers, and so that they now stand. 3. That the Infants of the Jews are not holy branches, as the root is holy, as v. 16. and that none but the fathers, shall be ingraffed in, and only 4. The aged and the baptized actuall believers of the Gentiles are the ingraffed ones, not their Infants, they are all Heathen and Pagans, as well as the casten off Jewes. 5. That the Jewes ingraffing in again shall be to their great hurt, so as God was long agoe their God, but shall no more in time coming be their God, then of the Pagans and the lately cut off fathers: Nor can the Adversaries say that Jewish Infants were broken off through unbelief, because they are capable neither of belief nor of unbelief to them. Then they remain in the Olive tree, members of the Church as before, and God must be still their God, when the fathers are cut off, vers. 17. And again, when the fathers shall be reingraffed and they made Christians, the Infants shall be out of Christ, and have no more Covenant right or Church-right to Baptisme, then the Infants of Egyptians and Philistines had to Circumcision.
Obj. Shall not, by this means, all the Infants of all the Gentiles be ingrafted in, and baptized?
Answ. The Text warrants us to say it only of the Children of the ingrafted and called Gentiles, that they have right to baptism.
Obj. This Text is spoken of these that have hereditary Covenant-right, from their naturall Father Abraham. We Gentiles
have not that naturall relation to Abraham, nor are we his naturall sons, nor branches?
Answ. Its false, that the Jews by birth as birth, had hereditary right to Church-priviledges, they had right by such a birth from Abraham taken in out of free-love to Covenant fellowship with God, and his children are naturall, that is, kindlie. 2. First branches and sprigs, before us Gentiles, to beleeving Abraham, but we beleeving are made Abrahams by proportion, and are secondary and so wild branches. 2. Abraham is not the Physicall, but a Morall root. For the Covenant was made with Abraham, not as a beleeving Father, but as a beleeving Head of Children, of Servants, and strangers under him, as the Covenant is laid as an Heavenly depositum, upon Zacheus, in relation not to his children only, but to his house, Luke 19. For when he is made a sonne of Abraham, salvation, that is, the Covenant of Life comes to him and to his house: and so to Cornelius, Acts, 10. and to the Jayler, Acts 16. and to their houses, and the same way I distinguish seeds.
Q. How can the Jews that are come in, be federaly holy for their fathers? Since now it is about fifteen hundreth years since their fathers were broken off from Church and Covenant: May not all the world Jews and Gentiles be federally holy branches, by the same reason, because the Covenant was made with, and Preached unto Adam a beleeving root and father in Paradice? So it would appear once in the Covenant of Grace, and all the seed to the coming of CHRIST, are federally holy, as well as they. Answ. This is as great a difficultie to the Adversaries (and insuperable) as to us, for the Jews unborn by their way, are no more holy in their branches and off-spring then Turks and Indians, and their children, untill they grow to age and actually beleeve, and so are the Infants of Americans, and such as worship the Sun, or Satan, that way holy. And so the branches of the Jews have no holiness from the root, nor are they beloved for the fathers, as vers. 28. 2. All the Jews leave not off to be members of the Invisible Church; For Paul saith Rom. 11. 25. blindnesse in part is happened to Israel [foreign] to a part of Israel: For howbeit, the visible masse and body of the Jews rejected Christ and wrath be come upon them
to the out most, 1 Thes. 2.16. yet that is not said universally of all the Jews, 14 [foreign]. Yea Paul wrote to the Jews the Epistle to the Hebrews. James to the twelve Tribes scattered abroad, Jam. 1.1. and Peter, 1 Pet. 1.1. and John to the Jews: I judge, not in a visible body, and these are not broken off the Olive, and do, though not in a Visible Church way, derive Covenant right to the branches that shall be ingrafted in. But many Nations descended of Adam have universally rejected Christ, and know not the Name of Christ the blessed seed.
Q. May we not say that the root is Christ as mysticall Head, from whom we partake of the sappe of grace and life and fatnesse.
Answ. The intent of Paul is to prove that the Jews cut off, because of their unbeleef, shall be ingrafted in again, in the Lords own time, because, of the holinesse of the Covenant, that was in the root, and in the first fruits Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. It is true, their Covenant-holiness is not the adequat cause, why they shall be ingrafted in really into Christ, for so all the carnall children, who had this relative holinesse must be really ingrafted in Christ, but it is with the Lords free love, both the cause of their personall, and of their Church ingrafting, and the continued deriving of that relative holinesse being a continued free favour in its kind, is the Lords love in the same kind to root and branches, otherwise it should not bear truth, which, is said, v. 28. which expones this, ver. 28. that they are beloved for the fathers, not as if they were predestinate to life, because Abraham was so chosen, but because of the Fathers Covenant holinesse, which was holinesse from Christ not as root and head, through influence of saving grace, but as a politick head which yet is, what we say. For because Christ is holy as root, head and Redeemer, the Jews once his Church Visible and to be so again, the branches are not really holy by faith, because all of them were not in Christ: But if all Jews and Gentiles, and also Infants who are Jews and Gentiles and parts of the body be baptized into the visible body, so are Infants. See more of this in Mr. Cotton, Mr. Black, Mr. Cobbet, Mr. Rich. Baxter, who have closed the dispute learnedly.
The differences of externall and internall Covenanting. 2. No Universall
HEnce, the clear differences
betwixt the externall visible and Nationall Covenanting of the people of old,
when they were brought out of the
1. This under the New Testament is a new Covenant, and all the old shadows are abolished: The former is the old.
2. This is with the house of Israel and Judah chosen persons, and so personall with single men. You shall not give a Nation, Kingdom, or Land, with which the Covenant internally is so made, as if all and every one, without exceptions, must know the Lord savingly (what may be the converted Jews case, whether the whole body of them, all the every one shall be visible, real, and personall Covenanters, as the place, Rom. 11.26. seems to say, I cannot determine) and all and every one be saved: for then must all the visible house of Israel be saved, and not the chosen only.
3. The visible externall Covenant was broken, Jer. 31.32. The other personall and internall is never broken.
4. The promise of a new heart is really fulfilled, in all the persons and single branches of the house of Judah, so that all and every one are taught of God, none excepted, Jer. 31.33.34. Isa. 54.13. Joh. 6.45. not so in the visible externall Covenant, if it be but externall: not any is taught of God, but all are taught of men.
5. The reall personall Covenant is everlasting, like that Covenant with the Moon and Stars; 2. The night and the day; 3. Of the motion of the Sea, Jer. 31.35,36,37. There is perseverance absolutely promised, Jer. 32.40. I will make an ever lasting Covenant with them, that I will not turn away from them, to do them good. Its sure in Gods part, for he changeth not. Nay, but we change and turn away from God, he obviats that: I will put my
fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. So Isai. 54.10. Isa. 59.21. but all such as Nationally, visibly only, and in profession only, are in Covenant, may fall away.
6. Jer. 31.38. Behold the dayes come saith the Lord, that the City shall be built to the Lord, &c. There is promise of spirituall right in Christ made to the blessings of this life, to these that are personall Covenanters; As Jer. 32.41. Ezek. 11. 17,18,19. Ezek. 36. 26,27,28,29,30,33. Ezek. 37. 24,25,26. Ezek. 34. 23,24,25,26,27. which promise, though not repeated in the New Testament, when the Prophesies of the Covenant are cited, Heb. 8.8. Heb. 10. 16,17. but of purpose omitted, because the promise of temporal blessings, is not so expresse now; Yet in other places of the New Testamant, it is clear that we have bread by Covenant-promise, Matth. 19.29. 1 Tim. 4.8. Heb. 13,5,6. 1 Pet. 3. 10,11,12. which promise is made not to these only that are in Covenant externally, &c. These six differences are clear, Jer. 31.33, &c. so that it is evident that all and every one of the Visible Church are not really and personally confederates, so that though the Lord say to both: I will be their God, and they shall be my people, yet not one and the same way.
Hence there is no ground at all, nor truth in what Arminians say, that the Covenant of Grace is made with all the every one of mankind, as was the Covenant of Works. For this must be true, that in Paradice, the Covenant of Grace was made with Adam, and all his seed: But a Covenant so universall ought to be proclaimed to all the Covenanters, but thus was not: For the Lord published and made it to Abraham and his seed, and the Lord choised Israel above all the people on earth, Deut. 5. 1,2,3. Deut. 7.6. Deut. 10.15. and shewed his judgements and statutes to them & not to other Nations: And therefore there can be no subjejective revealing of Christ, by universall grace, given to Heathen and all others, and by an objective revealing of Christ in the works of Creation, the heaven and earth, night and day, as some teach, citing the Ps. 19. 1,2.
For so 1. God choised Americans, Indians, and all the wild Savages to be his people, as well as he choised the Jews: and if the sound of the Gospel went out to the ends of the earth, that is, to
all and every one, as they expound, Psal. 19. 3,4.
cannot deny but faith comes by hearing of some other Preacher then a Gospel-Preacher or one that is sent; for Paul, Rom. 1. 16,17,18,19. and David, Psal. 19. 1,2,3.—v. 7,8,9. distinguish the two Books.
There is not such an Objection
dreamed as Amyrald imagines of
Spanhemius. If it be well said that the sound of the heavens is gone to the end of the world, that may be said truly of the Preaching of the Gospel. Junius to that sense. But 1. the place saith not that God called with a will, to save the Gentiles: The Scripture saith, he winked at them, and called them not, Acts 14.16. But now God commandeth all men every where to repent, Acts 17.30. and he revealed not his Testimonies to them. Now was not the same Gospel-book in the Pages of the works of Creation, as legible to the Gentiles before, as after the coming of Christ in the flesh? Nor can the Gospel which never came to the ears of many Indians and millions of people, it being to them a non ens, and an un heard of Doctrine, explain the book of Creation; as the thing that shadows out Christ, as the New Testament clears the Types of the Old: Nor doth the Scripture any where tell us, what work of Creation or Providence, expresseth Christs dying for our sins, rising for our righteousnesse: Nor doth the Scripture tell us of an Embleme, in nature, of God Incarnate, of the Man Christ in glory pleading at the right hand of God for us; And no doubt, the Lords naturall desires of saving all, calling and inviting all to Repentance, of Christs dying for all, his naturall willingnesse that all and every one should obey, do not ebbe and waxe and decrease, as the Sea and Moon do, and therefore his taking such a course with all the Gentiles, that no word of the Covenant comes to their ears, so that then at that time, they were without Christ, being aliens from the Common-wealth of Israel, and strangers from the Covenant of promise, having no hope, and without God in the world, Eph. 2.12. And in time past were no people (in Covenant) and had not obtained mercy, 1 Pet. 2.9,10. and were far off, Acts 2. 39. must evince, that the sense of the Gospel was not written in Sunne and Moon; and the book of Creation is not the Gospel; and therefore he hath been shewing that the Gentiles were not in Covenant before the Incarnation, and since no word of the Gospel comes to millions now, they are yet not in Covenant. And this is a Gospel-truth now, that stands after the Incarnation, as before, Rom. 9.18. He hath therefore mercy upon whom he will, and hardens whom he will. And he said it in the Old Testament, Exod. 33.19. and
repeateth it to us, Rom. 9.15. I will have mercy upon whom I will have mercy, and I will have compassion upon whom I will have compassion. And if any may say that he hath the like antecedent naturall good-will, to save eternally all these whom he calleth and moveth finally to obey, and the greatest part of mankind whom he so moveth and calleth as he knoweth they shall never obey, whereas he can move all finally to obey, without straining their naturall liberty: He speaks things that cannot consist with both the wisedom and liberty of God.
And if amongst these to whom the word of the Covenant comes, some are externally only, and never saved, Matth. 22. 14. Rom. 9.6,7. Others internally personally and really in Covenant and saved; why but some may be neither wayes in Covenant, if they never heard the word of the Covenant, and if the Heathen and Americans were under the Covenant of Grace Preached to them in that sound, that goes to the end of the world. Why, but Moab, Ammon, and Assyrians, Philistines, Chaldeans, Persians, are the Israel of God, his chosen people, his Sion, and must not the principall promise of the Covenant be made to them? and are we not to beleeve that God will write his Law in the hearts of Cain, Pharaoh, Saul, Doeg, Ahab, Judas, Magus, and of Moabites, Ammonites, Ægyptians, and of all and every one of mankinde, if they be in Covenant with him? Contrair to Psa. 147. 19,20. Hos. 8.12. Exo. 20.1.
Neither can it be said, that all mankind have received a subjective power to beleeve and receive Christ holden forth in the Gospel to us, Printed to be read and heard in the book of Creation, called the objective Gospel, as Adam had power to fulfill the first Covenant, for Adam had the Image of God concreated in his soul by which he was able to fulfill the Law, then must they give us a Scripture to prove that all Adams sons are converted, and restored to the Image of God, born over again, for by no other power but by a new heart, and the actings of God, can men beleeve the Gospel objective, or come to Christ, and do good works Evangelicall by which they are justified, and if it be a remote power that may grow, it is not the like power which Adam had to keep the Law. 2. This
power is either naturall, or supernaturall: Naturall it cannot be, for then flesh and blood might beleeve, and the wisedom of the flesh might be subject to the Law of God, which the Scripture denies, Mat. 16.16,17. Rom. 8.7. 2. There should be no need that Christ die, except only to satisfie for our breach of the Law, not to purchase new grace to us by his merits, and such a power should be no grace of Christ. If it be a supernaturall grace merited by Christ, then have Pagans, and all the Heathen that supernaturall inherent grace to beleeve in the Son of God, and yet the object thereof, the Gospel is not revealed to them, which is an incongruous dispensation not warranted by the Scripture, that the Lord should give a supernaturall power, to beleeve they know not what. 2. A supernaturall power to beleeve is saving grace, and a power to love Christ, and can saving grace be in Pagans or in any, and they know not of it? 3. Yea sins of Pagans, for which they are condemned, must be the Gospel-sins, for they cannot be Law-sins, for if all mankind be under the Covenant of grace, there can none at all be under the Law: For there can be none under the Covenant of Works, and also under the Covenant of Grace, for they are contrair dispensations, and contrair wayes of salvation. He who is under the Law is not under Grace, and he who is under Grace, is married to Christ, as to another Husband, Rom. 7.4. and not under the Law.
3. Saving grace is not in vain, but effectuall, 1 Corinth. 15. 10. 1 Tim. 1.14. And wee are saved by the Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, Acts 15.11. and no greater mercy can be wished to any, then the grace of our Lord Jesus, Rom. 16.20. 2 Cor. 13.14. Rev. 22.21. by which we are called, justified and glorified. If it be said that this grace is not that effectuall saving grace, bestowed upon the Elect, but a generall remote gracious power, by which we may acquire the saving grace proper to the Elect. But so 1. that grace saving proper to the Elect by this means is in the power of all Pagans, and all must be gifted with a power to purchase that grace proper to the Elect: That must be strange conquishing, we must all be made our own efficacious Redeemers, and Christ is a Saviour by merit, not by efficacy; For if this saving grace be infused, it is
either infused, we doing nothing
to which they cannot stand: Or then it is acquired, and so we make the generall
grace saving and proper to the Elect, which everteth the nature of saving
grace, and makes it the purchase of works. And they must say that Christ hath merited a generall
ineffectuall power to some, and that he dyed to merit a speciall saving grace
to others. Let us have a warrant for this, that Christ both died equally to save all, and yet with two contrary
intentions, to purchase a power of believing which should be effectuall to some
to save them, and ineffectuall to others. If it be said that Christ dyed to merite the same generall
power to all, but some make it ineffectuall, some not; This saith thus. 1. That
Christs death might have it's fruit and effect, though all perish. 2. That
Christ dyed to merite a far off, lubrick and possible venture of heaven, such
as was the case of the first Adam. 3.
Christ dyed not to purchase a new heart more to one then to another, whereas 1 Pet. 1. 18,19. the blood the Lord shed
is to Redeem us from our vain
conversation, in a naturall state as well as to save us from the wrath to
come; Then must Christ have died to
buy Pagans from Paganism and Idolatry: and that either absolutely, and then why
should multitudes so die in their sins? If conditionally, what can be the
condition going before conversion, to wit, that we should be delivered from our
vain conversation, so we be willing, before our conversion, to be delivered
from our vain conversation. And shall not the Question recur concerning that
condition? In a word they will have Christs death to buy Heaven, but not to buy
faith, without which Heaven is impossible. Yea he no more bought to men a grace
sweetly and strongly inclining the will to believe, then he bought such a grace
to the damned devils. He purposed to give to all Pagans a power by which they should be made fit to perform all that
the Gospel requires, and be fit to be made partakers
of the inheritance of the Saints,
well, and that all by sufficient grace (saith Corvinus) are disposed to conversion, but that sufficiency is not habituall grace, but actuall assistance conveying the Preached Word, which is to bring all to free-wills power, rejecting all infused power, and to make an influence of grace, which is in the power of free will to use or not to use, and to stand in two. 1. In a measure of heavenly Doctrine. 2. In the stirring upon the heart; Whence 1. Grace habituall so is denyed; then the will needeth no healing. 2. Grace universall is limited to the Word Preached, then it is not universall; For Pagans hear not the Word Preached. 3. There is no other help given to free will in every act, but 1. Information by the Word, that was the grace of Pelagius. 2. Some influence of God in every act: But that addes not new strength to the will. Shortly they say, Any man may know, understand and believe the Gospel, if the object be sufficiently proposed and revealed. And so the naturall man can no more know and receive the things of the Gospel, then he can understand the Metaphysicks, the Acromaticks of Aristotle: for these he cannot receive, but judgeth them folly; And so we are the same way blind, dead, stony-hearted to believe the Gospel, as we are to know and believe the mysteries of Aristotles Philosophy.
Lastly, this power of believing
and coming to Christ cannot be in all men, since the Scripture saith of all men
(even these within the Visible Church not excepted) that untill the light of
the Gospel savingly enlighten them, they
sit in darknesse and in the shadow of death, Isa. 9. 1. Math. 4.15,16. And
[foreign] No man can come to Christ
without the Fathers drawing, and God teaching the heart, Joh. 6.44,45. The naturall man, [foreign], cannot understand the things of God, but
judges them foolishnesse, 1 Cor.
2.14. His wisedome cannot be subject to
the Law of God.
being out of Christ, and can do nothing, Joh. 15.3.4. It shall be clear to any, that the Holy Ghost denyeth any such power, as they affirm. It reckons not much to tell that Jesuites, as Martmez de Ripul, Swarez, Alphonsus Curiel, Duvallius, Lod. Molma, Did. Ruiz, Vasquez, Bellarmine, Phili. Samachæus, Sorbonicus, Gulie. Estius, Dominica, Toletus Cardinalis, Pirerius, Salmeron, teach that, without saving grace, men may, and can first know morall truths, shining vertues, as heathens, be free of sin, as touching these vertues in their due circumstances. 2. Keep the Commandements and Law of Nature. 3. Dispose themselves for, and obtain the grace of Conversion by their own industrie. 4. Be victorious over this or that weighty temptation singly taken. 5. That there is no intrinsecall hurt of free-will, that it is wounded a little, because of the darknesse of the mind, and langour of nature, but not dead to actions supernaturall. 6. That we may love God as the Author of nature, and Creator sincerelie; And Arminians teach that we may without the Spirit of God know all truth, quantum sufficit ad salutem, sufficiently to salvation, and so may will, love, and beleeve without the infused supernaturall habit or grace, so their Apologie.
And the Socinian Catechism, c. 6. pag. 212. and Socinus himself, Prælect. Theol. Cap. 4. Fol. 15,16. Et de officio hominis Christi: Cap. 5. Smalcius on Joh. 1. Hom. 3. Give to us man-whole, sound, sinlesse, as he came from the first Adam. 2. That man can do all that Cod commands him with little help of God. 3. Its an errour (saith Smalcius) that a man hath no strength in spirituall things, there is no need of the inward gift of the Spirit of God to beleeve (saith the Raccovian Catechism) for we read not that such a gift in Scripture is bestowed upon any but upon beleevers:
such as are born of Adam (saith Socinus) are all born in the same condition, and nothing is taken from such a man, which he naturally hath or was to have. Ostorodius Justi. Relig. Christ. cap. 21. Prædicatio sola Euangelis potest hominem absq, internâ Spiritus illuminatione, & operatione à peccatis convertere. The only Preaching of the Gospel without the inward illumination by the Holy Spirit, and his working is able to convert a man from sin. All which is Printed and taught, and many other abominable errours to us.
To this Objection against universall grace (as I judge unanswerable) Corvinus Answers, that all the places of Scripture brought to prove mans inability to beleeve in Christ, and to worship him, conclude well that a man hath not strength of himself without Christ and his grace; but this is but to cloud the truth, and to mock the reader, for if all and every man (even the Infants of Pagans) be in Covenant through Christ, and be made able by a gifted grace common to all, within, and without the Church, by which they are able by degrees to do all that the Gospel requires, what avails it to discourage them, and to tell, they are not masters of a good thought, without grace; for they are no lesse masters of good thoughts and good words, and of good actions then Adam was; for they are not hearers of the Gospel by nature, but as gifted with universall grace, they are hearers, and before their conversion, and before they receive the Spirit of Regeneration, can please God, and prepare themselves for Regeneration: Yea there is no animal and naturall Pagan de facto existing in the world (by their way) who cannot receive the things of God, and cannot come to Christ, except he be drawn, for all Pagans and others are drawn, and by this it might have been said, Adam as wanting supernaturall grace, and as a naturall man (for the Image of God was supernaturall grace to Adam, as Arminius and Corvinus teach) so, was not able to think a good thought, as 2 Cor. 3.5. nor able to receive the things of God, as the naturall man, 1 Cor. 2.14. and Adam so was also dead in trespasses and sins, and must come to Christ the same way to wit, drawn by the grace super-added to nature, as we fallen sinners do.
Cases from the former Doctrine.
1. The differences betwixt such as are externally, visibly, and conditionally, and such as are internally and personally in Covenant with God. 2. Gods esteem, not mens, make Nations Visible Churches. 3 The first and prime subject of speciall Church-priviledge. 4. Gods command to receive seals, no warrand to all members to challenge them.
IF multitudes and people externally Covenanted with God, though not internally,
whom the Lord calls his people and chosen by him, Deut. 7.6. Deut. 10.15.
be the rightly constitute and
Visible Churches, except men also esteem and judge them
not only externally, but really and internally justified and effectually
called. 2. These we are to judge in Covenant visibly, whom the Lord so calls,
and to these the seals do belong Ecclesiastically, though we see not signes of
their inward conversion; Except we say that our judgement is surer then the
Lords; But the Lord calls Nations,
the Gentiles so, and so must Paul and Church members judge all the
Kingdomes, and all the Gentiles reall converts; Else the seals are not due to
them. 3. If we must judge them all really redeemed and sanctified, who are fed
by Pastors, as Mr. Hooker teacheth
from Acts 20.28. seed the stock, then are we to esteem all the fathers who were baptized unto Moses in the Cloud, and
in the Sea, and did eat the same spirituall meat, and did all drink of the same
spirituall Rock Christ, 1 Cor. 10. 1,2,3,4. to be really redeemed, reall
beleevers, and the whole world to be really redeemed, and yet the world is not
the Church, yet they were Idolaters, murmurers, visibly known to be such; And John 'Baptist was oblidged to esteem the
Mat. 3. 5,6. and were baptized, saith Mark 1.5.) what motives I say, led and induced them to join? For they joined but for a season, Joh. 5.35. Matth. 21.32. and what rule of the word there is to regulate us in judging of these motives? 3. What outward marks the word gives of outward regeneration, and consequently of predestination to glory, justification, Effectuall Calling, made visible, which we must see in others, before Pastours can feed them as Pastours, for the word is in all the like a perfect rule.
2. What is the first principall and only proper subject of the promises of
speciall note, in the Mediator, of
the promise of a new heart, of the styles, properties and priviledges of speciall
note; That is, to be called the body of CHRIST, the Anointed ones, and such as
shall never fall away, Jer. 32.
39,40. Jer. 31. 35,36. Answ. Only the invisible and Mysticall
body of Christ for a promise of a new heart, of the Law ingraven in the inward
parts, of the anointing, Jer. 31.33. Isa. 54.13. Heb. 8.10. of perseverance, Jer.
31. 35,36. Isa. 54.10. Isa. 59. 20,21. Jer. 32. 39,40. Joh. 10.
27,28,29. are promises of speciall note
in the Mediator; And if any say that the Visible Church as such, as visible,
whereof Simon Magus is a member, is
the first principall subject of these promises or of priviledges of speciall note in the Mediator, they must join (it
may be mistakenly) with Arminians.
Mr. Thomas Hooker did not so
ingenuously as need were, refute this Thesis of mine, as he ought to have done,
but framed an other of his own, and refuted it, to wit, which is not owned by
of God is a good warrand to the Church and Ministers to conferre the seals to Ishmael, Simon Magus, Judas, though no Word of God warrand us judicially to sentence them to be regenerate, before the Ministers can confer the seals, as Mr. Hooker and his teach, but that the command of God is a good right and warrand to Esau, and Simon Magus, to require and to challenge the seals is not written in the Scripture, with the good leave of that pious man, no more nor usurpers have warrand to challenge that to which they have no right, or a robber hath warrand to require the purse of an innocent traveller. Can the sorcerer Magus say, there can be no better right then I have to challenge Baptism and the Lords Supper? Why? I have the command of God. Nay but an answer is soon returned to the witch: The Church of Samaria hath Gods warrand to confer the seals, so long as the witches skill fails him not to act fairly the part of the painted professour, but the conditionall command of an externally Preached Covenant, is not the best right, nay, no right at all for him to challenge the seals, except he come beleeving and discerning the Lords Body, and mourning for sin, and fulfill the condition: Indeed if the Lord had commanded Magus and all the visible members, with an absolute command, Come and receive the seals whether ye professe, know Christ, or beleeve and repent, or not; that command should warrand all to challenge, but I trust Mr. Hooker will not stand to such a command. And therefore distinguish betwixt jus activum, ane active right in the Church to confer the seals, and jus passivum, a passive right in Magus to challenge: The latter requires that Magus have right as a beleever, and in foro Dei, both to the seal and interest in Christ, by the grant of Adversaries; Else he hath no right, no command of God to challenge the seals. And therefore we must distinguish betwixt the Covenant of Grace, qua factum & initum, & qua annunciatum, the Covenant, I say, as made with some, and yet Preached to all. And whereas Mr. Hooker saith, 38,39.pag. that he cannot see how the will of purpose, and the will of revealed command, do not contain apparent contradictions. This Godly man hated Arminians, when he saw them in daylight. I cannot now insist to answer him and Papists and Arminians who object the very same thing. It is clear they differ much,
but they are not contradicent, more then the decree of God, and the morall obligation of men are contrair. Hypocrites and such, are only visible members and no more, and have no true and internall right and interest in the seals according to the inward grace signified or the promises of a new heart, which are absolute and made to the Elect and beleevers, who are the only principall prime and proper subject of such promises of speciall note in the Mediator.
Quest. 3. What be these principall reall Covenanters to whom onely, the new heart is absolutely promised, and how are they known.
1. Of the hypocrisie, of formall Covenanters. 2. Selfdeceit. 3. The new Spirit. 4. Revelations and Prophecies. 5. Markes of a Spirituall disposition.
Answ. THis toucheth the differences of the old and stony heart in such as are externally only in Covenant with God, and are Hypocrites: And the new and soft heart of such as are internall, reall, and absolute Covenanters: Hence these propositions.
1. An Hypocrite is he who in the stage represents a King, when he is none, a begger, an old man, a husband, when he is really no such thing, Luke 20.20. They sent out spies, faining themselves to be just men: To the Hebrews they are [foreign] faciales, facemen, men of the face and vizard and [foreign] colorati, dyed men, rid men, dipped, baptized, from the root [foreign] to dye, dip, wash, baptize, Jer. 12.9. mine heritage is to me as an speckled bird, or a pyed bird, and hath casten off my simple liverie, and so is a bird of many sundrie colours: The Hypocrite is dyed and watered with a hew and colour of godlinesse. Coneph noteth hypocrisie, Isa. 32. 6. from [foreign] simulavit, fraudulenter egit. The noune [foreign] Chald. [foreign] a dissembler, an Hypocrite, who is sometimes just, sometimes wicked, the root by a Metaphore is to pollute,
and defile, Psal. 106. the land was defiled with bloods: Hence the Hypocrite is all things, and all men, and nothing, and no man but himself.
Hypocrisie is considered in it self, and so it is opposed to sincerity. Or in relation to these graces and duties which it fenzies, and so it is opposed to all the true vertues which it lyingly and feinzedly represents, as painting is opposed to realitie in nature, being a counterfeiting of nature, and it is opposed to things that are painted, so a living man, and a growing rose, things obvious to the eyes of sense are most easily painted as colours lineaments, as a mans body, but things that fall under the understanding only, as the soul, and under the sense of smelling and touching, are hardly pictured. Ye may paint the man, the roses, the colour, figure, and the fires red flaming, but he cannot paint the soul, the smell of the rose, or the heat of the fire: It is hard to counterfite spirituall graces, as love of Christ, sincere believing intending of the Glory of God, Its hard to get a coat, or put painture on spirituall graces, and the more ye counterfite the Spirit, the more Divell-like is the forgerie, for he changeth himself into an Angel of light. There is some use for painted men, for they serve for ornament, but there is no use for faith but resting upon Christ, nor for love, but to cleave to God, and please him and our neighbour: In all duties we counterfite but the outward bulk of graces and actions, and would seeme to do what we do not: If the colour of graces and godlinesse be desireable, it self is more desireable, but to imitate only the externalls of the Covenant of Grace to keep a roome in the Church, is to put a lie and mock upon the Lord, and to reproach him with dimnesse of sight: And such as hate Christ and the Godly in their heart, and first cloath them with the coat of hypocrites, lyers, Samaritanes, seditious men, they much more hate Godlinesse, he that would have the picture of the man stobbed or hanged, would much more have the living man in person stobbed or hanged.
Hypocrisie is a resembling of a morall good for vaine glory: In not hypocrisie to suppresse tears in Prayer, least the man seeme to seek himself, nor for a father to seeme to be angry at his childe or servant when he is not angry, nor to put on deafnesse at reproaches,
Psal. 38. 12. They speak mischievous things, 13. But I as a deaf man heard not: It was prudencie, not hypocrisie in Saul to hold his peace and misken when the sons of Beliall despised him, it being the beginning of his reigne, 1 Sam. 10. 27. Nor is it hypocrisie in a Magistrate or Joseph to put on an other person to his brethren, though if the ground be unbelief, it is not lawfull for David to feinzie himself mad: Nor for Ammon to counterfite sicknesse, or to put a lie upon providence: And yet it is not hypocrisie for Solomon to seeme to divide in two the living childe with a sword, or for the men of Israel to flie before the men of Ai. A lawfull end and a right end and motive, contributes goodnesse to actions that are not intrinsecally evill.
There is a naturall hypocrisie in all, every man in both sides of the Sun is a lyar, he that said he would wish that he might dwell in the land beyond the dawning of the morning, where they are all sincere, wished to dwell where there are no men; for whereever men are, there are hypocrites and hypocrisie. There is an acquired hypocrisie in all, lesse or more, and an habit thereof in not a few.
According to mens wayes so are men white and painted Hypocrites; Herod professeth to worship Christ and mindes to kill him, Math. 2. And Absolom covers treason and rebellion against his father and prince, with the whitenesse of a vow at Hebron, what better is the whoore and what more devoute to say, Prov. 7. 14. I have peace offerings with me, to day have I payed my vowes? under the vail of zeal (they think it) service to God to kill the Apostles, Joh. 16.
But the worst of Hypocrites is he who makes himself a Hypocrite, not before God onely, and before men, but whitens and paints himself before himself, and deceives himself, 1 Joh. 1. 8. It is strange a man hath such a power over himself, as to perswade himself that he hath no sin, not only in point of faith, as such as deny any originall sinne in themselves or others; as many seducers now do, Socinians, Arminians, diverse Anabaptists, and such as say, the Law may be fulfilled by Grace, we are justified by Works: It is possible to be free of sin in this life and to be perfite, so as they cannot sin: But also practically a mans heart may deceive
his heart, and may perswade himself that he is Godly and Religious, Jam. 1. 26. and that his wayes are right, Prov. 14. 12. and may say within his heart, and so think not only, I am holier then thou, and yet not be so much as ceremonially holy, but remaine in the graves and eat swines flesh, Isa. 65. 45. but I say I am rich (and which is above admiration) I have need of nothing, Rev. 3. 17. that I have no need of forgivenesse, of saving Grace, of the Redeemer Christ, of Salvation. And this is so much the more dangerous, that the prejudice and blindnesse of self-love, doth more strongly perswade self-godlinesse then any godlinesse of the world, and begets a more strongly radicated and fixed habite of believing self-godlinesse, then Ministers the godliest of them, and Professors, and Angels, and the Lord immediatly speaking (so long as the revelation is literall) Numb. 22.12,24,28. and Christ Preaching in his Person, Math. 8. 9, 14. Math. 21.43,44,45. Luke 16.13,14. Ioh. 10.24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31. and the Apostles, Acts 24.25,26. Acts 26.2,3,4 5 6, &c. 24. can be able to root out, for they can fence and ward off, and can let out blowes at all that ye can say, and cary this habite of a false opinion of self-holinesse to Eternitie with them, and stand to what conceited lamps they hear on earth, did glister withall; and plead against the Lord in his face, that the sentence of condemnation is unjust, Matth. 25. 44. and that they deserve for their profession to be admitted in to the Bride-groomes chamber, Math. 7. 22. Matth. 25. 11. Luke 13. 25. and all such fairded Professors, are externally only in Covenant with God. And therefore these are sad marks, when first ye hid your lusts and nourish them, and feed upon the East wind of some created last end, and have not God for your last end, Luke 12. 19. Psal. 49.11. Psal. 4. 6. Ier. 22. 17. 2. When ye know not that ye are poor, miserable, blind, naked, Rev. 3. 17. Math. 9. 11, 12,13. Luke 15. 2. Luke 19. 7. and ye were never in Christs hospitall, and are whole and need no Physick. 3. Ye loath Christ but knows it not, Luke 7. 44. 45. ye love Christ as a supposed Prophet, and loath him as a Redeemer. One may deadly hate Christ, and not know it. 4. Ye cannot compare the two states together, the state of nature and the state of Grace, as 1 Tim. 1. 13. ye idolize your own choise, to bear down Achabs Idolatrie,
but choose not the will of God to oppose. Ieroboams Idolatrie. 5. Ye want Christ, and ye were not born with Christ in the heart. 2. Yea ye are eternally lost without him, and know neither the one nor the other.
Quest. 4. Whether or not are beleevers the parties of the Covenant of Grace. Ans. These are parties to whom the Covenant-promise is made, not these who already have the benefit promised in the Covenant, but beleevers must have a new heart, and consequently faith already, therefore they cannot be parties with whom the Covenant is made. As because the Image of God is not promised to Adam in the Covenant of Works, but presupposed to be in him by order of nature, before God make with him the Covenant of Works, else he could not be able to keep that Covenant, which we cannot say, for God created him right and holy, Gen. 1.26,27. Eccles. 7. 29. Eph. 4. 24. Col. 3. 10. Therefore Adam in his pure naturalls, as not yet indued with the Image of God, cannot be the partie with whom the Covenant of Works is made, for then the Image of God must either be a reward, which Adam by his pure naturalls and strength thereof must purchase by working, which the Scripture and nature of the Covenant cannot admit, or then the Image of God must be promised of Adam in the Covenant of Works, which is no lesse absurd. And if faith be promised in the Gospel, the Covenant of Grace must be made with some Israel and Judah as predestinated to life eternall and yet wanting a new heart: For God cannot Covenant-ways promise a new heart to such as have it, but to such as have a stony heart and beleeve not, Ezek. 36. 26. Deut. 30.6. Ezek. 11.19. nor can he promise faith to such as have faith this way.
Quest. 5. Who are these that have the new heart, and so are personally and really within the Covenant of grace. Ans. Because the new spirit is given, when the new heart is given, Ezek. 36.27. Ezek. 18.31. Make you a new heart and a new spirit, and many in our times boast of the spirit, it shall be fit to speak of the new spirit, and who are spirituall.
Hence these Questions of the new spirit.
Quest. 1. What is the seed of the new spirit?
Ans. The word of the Gospel, therefore before Adam could
have the Gospel-spirit, the Lord must reveal the Doctrine of the Gospel, the seed of the woman must tread down the head of the serpent, Gen.3. So the word and the spirit are promised together, Isa. 59.21. Isa. 30.21 Thy teachers shall not be removed, and thine ears shall hear (this is the inward teaching) a voice behind thee, saying, this is the way, walk ye in it. Isa. 51.16,17. Mat. 28. 20. Go teach, that is the word: Loe I am with you to the end of the world, that is the Spirit to make it effectuall, by my Spirit, Joh. 14.16,17.
Object. But Adam when he heard first the Doctrine of the blessed seed, could not try the Doctrine or speaker, by any new Doctrine.
Ans. The first Doctrine can be tryed by no other rule, because it was the first rule it self, nor can these principalls written in the heart naturally (That God is) (God is just, holy) &c. be tryed by any other truths, because they are first truths; As the sense of seeing cannot try whether the Sun be the Sun by the light of some other Sun, that is before this Sun, which is more lightsome. For there is not another Sun before this, the Gospel it self hath God shining in it, to these who are enlightened, as Adam was, a Rubbie doth speak that is a Rubbie.
Obj. How then should Adam know what God spake to him and not to another, are we not to try all spirits that speak?
Ans. There is a word immediatly spoken by the Prophets, and Apostles, that is to be tryed, partly by the first Preaching the Lord made in Paradise, partly by the effects, that it converteth the soul, Psal. 19.7. and smells of that same Majesty, and the divine power of another life, which is in the first Sermon, Gen. 3. 15. this is Verbum Dei immediatum. But when God himself speaks in his own person to Adam, to Abraham, Gen. 22. to Moses, Isaiah, the Apostles, that is Verbum Dei immediatissimum, the fountain-word; neither word nor speaker is to be tryed. The Patriarchs and Prophets are never bidden try the visions of God, for when God speaks them himself, he makes it evident that it is he, and only he who speaks, and we read not of any in this deceived, Angels or men cannot counterfeit God.
Obj. There have, after the Canon of the Scripture is closed,
been some men, who have Prophesied facts to come, that fell out as they foretold, just as Isaiah, Elias, and other Prophets, then something is to be beleeved, that is not written, and such may have the Spirit, and yet no word of Scripture goes along with it.
1. Such men may have (I confesse) a Propheticall spirit, but first, they were
eminently holy and sound in the faith, and taught that the
2. What these men of God foretold, is a particular fact concerning a man, what death he should die, or a Nation, or a particular, such a man shall be eternally saved, but no dogma fidei, nor any truth that lays bands on the Catholick Church to believe that to the end of the world, as all Scripturall truths do, and a doubt it is, if we are to beleeve these, in the individuall circumstances of fact, sub periculo peccati, upon hazard of sinning against God, we may, I judge, without sin suspend belief, and yeeld charity to the speaker.
3. If any object, the Prophets did foretell particular facts concerning the death of Ahab, the birth of Josiah, which concerned particular persons: I, but they so were the maters of fact (as the crucifying of Christ was a mater of fact) as also they did by the intent of the Holy Ghost contain Historicall, Morall and dogmatically divine Instructions, so that the whole Catholick Church must believe them, with certainty of divine faith, they being written and spoken for our Instruction, and they sin who believe not.
Quest. 2. What are we to judge of these truths revealed to Professors, when they are in much nearnesse to God, and the Lord is pleased to shine upon them in some fulness of manifestation of himself to their souls, especially in particular facts? Answ. There is a wide difference betwixt revelations, which speak what is lawfull or unlawfull, agreeable unto or repugnant to the Word; And what is good in jure, and what in facto, shall come to passe or not come to passe, what ever is given to revelations of the former sort, is taken from the Scripture, whose peculiar perfection it is to show
what is good and just, what not; Therefore to say that revelations now do guide us in disobeying higher Powers or killing men, &c. is a wronging of the Word, especially of the first, second and sixth Commands. As to the other, God may and doth lead his owne, especially when they are near glory, under fewest prejudices touching time and eternity, to speak what shall be, but it is not our rule. It's an Argument of nought, Such a thing was mightily born in upon my spirit as lawfull and as certainly to come to passe, when I was most near to GOD in a full manifestation of himself: therefore such a way is right, or such a way shall come to passe; For not to say 1. that this is a wronging of the perfection of Scripture, and 2. That there is a bastard Logick in the affections where God and nature hath seated discursive power; And we often prophesie, because we love, not because we see the visions of God. 3. Peter might, the same way, reason, I saw the glory of heaven at the transfiguration, and the Peers of the higher house, Moses and Elias, and this was then mightily born in upon my spirit, It is good for us to be here, let us build three Tabernacles; therefore this is true, It is good for us to be here: But the Conclusion is a dream; who should preach the Gospel as witnesses and suffer for it, and write Canonick Scripture, if these Disciples should be for ever there? And if they should be separated from the whole glorified body, and make up a Church eternally glorified in that Mount, of only six persons: And the word saith, Peter being drunk with glory, Mark 9. 6. [foreign] knew not what he said, and the Disciples were sleeping, not prophecying, Luke 9. 32. which saith they were in heaven, but cloathed with bodies of sin, and not led by Scripture-light (as that good Prophecie of Peter was contrair to the Gospel of suffering and dying, that Christ prophesied was abiding himself, and all his, Math. 16. 21, 22.) we should reel and sin: for there may be no connexion between the present nearnesse to God and the thing suggested in the spirit; and they cohere by accident. So one in prayer is near God in respect of sweetnesse of accesse, and yet the individuall favour which ye pray for conditionally, never granted; Ye may be saved, and God more glorified in the sufficiency of his grace, without granting it to you, as is clear 2 Cor. 12. 9. Sorrow and desire can suggest such an
answer to the fasting of
2. The spirituall man judgeth all things, but by the word. In one particular, Samuel, in another, Tertullian, dottes upon Montanus, some of the prime fathers, otherwise Godly, are blacked with Platoes purgatory, and some of them with invocation of Saints, yet speaking to them doubtingly [foreign],say; the spirit may be, where some particular errours are, but if the judgement be rotten and unsound in the matters of God, rottennesse in the one side of the Apple creeps through the whole, and so doth corruption from the minde sink down to the heart. A godly heretick I cannot know.
3. Any bone or hurt member in walking, actually pains and breedeth aiking, if there be a piercing and a graving conviction, in a Christian motion, that untowardnesse and opposition from the flesh, pains the spirit and new man, and hinders the stirrings of the Spirit, it saith the Spirit is there, as water cast upon fire speaketh there is fire, Rom. 7.15,16,23,24. It were good to try the untowardnesse
to spirituall duties, and severall kinds of delight, whether it be borrowed delight from the literall facilitie of the gift, from gaine and glory, adhereing to the office and calling, or from the inbred sweetnesse in honouring God, crooking and pain in walking is a token of life-walking.
4. Its a spirituall disposition
in the Church, Cant. 2. in a
particular soul, to know and be able to give an exact account of all the
motions, goings and comings of Christ, where he lyeth as a bundle of myrrhe all the night, even betwixt the breasts,Cant. 1.
13. when the King brings you into his
house of new wine, Cant. 1.4. Cant. 2.4. when he speaks, Cant. 2.8,10.--My beloved spake and said to me, arise, my
love, my fair one, and come away, when he knocks, know ye his knock, to
tell over again his words, open to me my
sister, &c. where he is. Cant. 2. 8. Behold he cometh leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills,
where he is in his dispensation to his
5. Godly missing of Christ must be a gracious disposition, Cant. 5.6. I opened to my beloved, but my beloved had withdrawn himself,
Cant. 3.1. I sought him but I found him not, vers.2. I sought him but I found him not. Such as are pleased with a bare literall missing and are not also in a holy manner anxious and are not
6. Restlesse in rising and going through the City, in the streets and the broad wayes, seeking and asking, saw ye him whom my soul loveth? Cant. 3.1,2,3. are not so spirituall, as is required. Cant. 5.6. My beloved had withdrawn himself, and was gone, my soul failed when he spake, remembring his speeches, when he knocked. v. 2. There may be some too longsome securitie under sad falls, when he is not soon missed, 2 Sam. 11. 1,2,3. Psal. 26.15. Yea a spirituall soul having regard to all the Commandements misseth the spirits acting in all the wayes in eating, Pro. 3.6. Act. 27.35.1 Cor. 10.31. Job 1.5.
7. Frequent convictions (which are the connaturall actings of the Spirit) Joh. 16.9. and of the most spirituall sins, as of unbeleef, and Gospel ignorance, Joh. 16.9. prove a spirituall state: as flaming prove fire to be fire. Unbeleef is more contrair to the Spirit, then carnall sins being most contrary to the flower and bloomings of the Spirit in his sweetest operations, and most against the Mediator-love of Christ. For as by the fall, Christ hath a new Office to redeem us, Matth. 1.21. I Tim. 1.15. Luke 19.10. Isa. 61.1,2. Isa. 44.6,9. So the Spirit hath a new Office, which he should not have had, if man had not sinned, to apply the blood of sprinkling as a sort of Mediatory intercession, to dippe us in the fountain of his blood. John 16. 14. He shall receive of mine, and shew it unto you. Joh. 14.16. to be the Comforter, Joh. 14.16. the Leader, Joh. 16.13. the Witnesse, Joh. 15.26. Rom. 8.15,16. The Spirit in his Office cannot step one foot with the unbeleever. Hence much tendernesse and smiting of heart where the Spirit, Sam. 24.5. is. Yea conscience to weep as one over his mothers grave, for his enemies, Ps.35.13,14. and strict doubling of faith in greatest deeps: In which Christ proves himself to be more then a believing man, Mat. 26.39. Luk. 22.42,44. for no man that is only man can both drink hell & believe heaven at once. 8. In duties there be these. 1. The end. 2. The delight in them. 3. The successe. As to the first, the lesse of the creature and self, and the more of God in the second, so much the more denyed and spirituall is the doer, when purely
for God [foreign] we do, 1 Cor. 10.13.
2. For delight, it is a spirituall disposition, to go about the duty as duty, ut bonum honestum, and not upon this formall account because it delighteth us; Except the delight be in the Law of the Lord, night and day, as it glorifieth him. 2. It's spiritualnesse, when abstractedly from private consolation we go about the duty for God, and can rest upon suffering and burning quick as it is duty, though the sufferer should be deserted all the while; We often feed our selves with the bonum secundum, the pleasantnesse in the duty, which is our sin, except the sweetnesse of the holinesse of the duty be our delight, and the beauty of pleasing God allure us, but feeling being away, we find how hard it is, to delight our selves in the Lord. 3. We do duties too often, for the success not for the duty: We pray, the Lord hears not, we wearie
we rebnke men, they care not, and we wearie; Sucesse and not duty, self-delight and not the honouring of God, which should be all our delight, take us up. I pray and weep for my enemies (Ah! if it could be done) saith David, they are worse, Psal. 35. 13. but my prayer returned to my bosome, that is, the sweet peace of God, which is the fruit of the duty of praying came to my soul, and cheered me. We consider not that the promise of peace, and consolation is made to the duty it self, Psal. 119.165. Psal. 19.11. Prov. 3.21,22,23,24,25. not to successe of the duty, and wee consider not that we are to be quieted in the duty, and to be armed with patience, against the temptation of the duty. Often it in-rages Pharisees against CHRIST and the Apostles, yet the Spirit bids them Preach. Therefore whether successe in praying, and the suggar of delight in duties hire us, or not; We are to know that though Abrahams offering of Isaac to God had neither in it the one nor the other, nor our Saviours offering himself to God, for the sinnes of the world; If reason weigh the one and the other, yet because both were performed upon the motive of the love of God commanding, both was most spirituall obedience, especially, because the duty is both work and wage, and the more of the Word of God is in the obedience; I mean not the letter only, but the word including the love. 2. The authority of the Commander. 3. The beauty apprehended to be, and the peace in obedience; the more spirituall is the obedience: The letter only may show you duty, your obligation, and the penaltie of disobeying, and all these three in a literall way, and yet upon that account, the obedience is not spirituall, but Gospel-love added to the Laws-letter makes spirituall obedience.
The new heart of Covenanters, the Nature, Characters, Properties thereof, hitherto of the new Spirit.
Quest. 6. WHen are we to judge, that we have a new heart? And when do we know that it is not the old heart?
Ans. 1 Propos. As Physically, so also Morally, the heart is the man, the good heart, the good man, the evill heart, the evill man, and God weights men by the weight, not of the tongue, of the hands, of the outward man, but by the weight of the heart: Asa his heart was perfect, 2 Chron. 15.17. the heart of Jehoshaphat, 2 Chron. 17.3. was perefect. And Psal. 78. 37. their heart was not right: the froward heart is the froward man, Pro. 3.32. For there is a man speaking within a man, and a heart within a heart acting, as if it were a man made up of soul and body. Thou hast said in thy heart, I will ascend up to Heaven, so the King of Babylon, Isa. 14.13. So the heart acts Heaven or Hell within the man, Psal. 14.1. Luk. 12.19. they have a heart [foreign] busied in the Colledge, studying and reading covetousnesse, 2 Pet. 2. 14.
2. Propos. When the Lord tryes the man, he tryes the heart and the reins, Prov. 15.11. Hell and the heart both are naked before him. Prov. 17.3. Theodoret. God acteth the noon-day-Sun meridionaliter in every heart: The man himself is without, and God within, Jer. 17.9. Man searcheth not his own heart and reins, for there be plottings and inclinations to evill in the heart, which the heart knows not, 2 King. 8.12,13. Peter hath a better heart then all men in the books of his own heart, Matth. 26.33. but its not so indeed.
3. Propos. The washen heart that lodges not vain thoughts, Jer. 4.14. purged from dead works, by the blood of Christ (above all the blood
of bullocks and goats) Heb. 9.14.
purified by faith, Act. 15.14. is the
good heart. It is a better heart according to the heart of God, 1 King. 15. 5. that turneth not aside, 1 Sam. 13.14. of Gods seeking out and
finding, then the first heart created of God, Eph. 4.24.
4. Propos. The excellent acts of God, in a manner (with glory to his Highnesse) to mind his first work, to create a better heart then the first which he created, saith, that there is great need of a good heart, Psal. 51.10. of a new heart, Ezek. 36.26. Its beyond
all admiration, to create so rare a peece as the Sun out of nothing, and a beautifull Lillie out of mire and dirt, out of common clay to bring forth Saphirs, Carbuncles, and in liew of a stony heart (for grace is not educed out of the potencie of any created thing) to create a new heart, which God loveth to dwell in, rather then in heaven, the high and holy place, Isai. 57.15. which so ravisheth the heart of Christ, Cant. 4.7,9. and is of more price with God, then gold, or any corruptible thing, even a meek and quiet spirit, 1 Ptt. 3.3,4. is the rarest peece of the works of God.
Its an excellent act of God to keep the vessell in a spirituall season, as David prayes, 1 Chron. 29.18. To make roome for Christ dwelling by faith, and for love to comprehend love, Eph. 3.17,18. and who puts such a thing in the heart, Ezra 7.27. when a sparkle of fire from flint falls on water or green timber, there is no fireing from thence. But when actuall influences fall upon an heavenly habit, as the Lord can cast in a coal, or a lump and flood of love, Cant. 2.5,6. Luk. 24.32. Cant. 6.12. there are most heavenly actings of the soul.
3. He bows and inclines the heart to the Lords testimonies, and to cleave to him without declining, Jer. 32.39,40. Ps. 119.39. Cant. 1.4. Ps. 141.4.
4. We are to beware of 1. the reigning evils of the heart, of a rotten and unsound heart, 1 Tim. 6.5. Psal. 119.82. 2. Of an unsavoury stinking heart, that smells of hell and the second death, of all sort of unrighteousnesse and malice, like a green opened grave, Psal. 5.9. 3. Of an uncured heart, that never came through the hands of the Physician (Prov. 14.13. A sound heart is the life of the flesh.) Of an unsound, unsavoury and a rotten heart, Eph. 4.29. compared with vers. 23. from whence issue rotten words, borrowed from rotten and worm-eaten trees which speak an uncured heart.
5. We are to look to deadnesse of heart in all the branches of it. As (1.) fullennesse and dumpish sadnesse, in refusing comforts, and being full of unbeleeving heavinesse, in David, Psal. 69. 20. Psal. 42.11. whereas we are alwayes to rejoice, Psal. 119.52. Phil. $.4. (2.) Fainting at the greatnesse of the affliction, Isa. 20.3. ch. 14.1. whence comes withering of heart, Psal. 102.4. Psal.
27.13. (3.) An overwhelmed and unbeleeving sowning heart,
Psal. 61.2. Psal. 142.3. Psal.
143.3,4. (4.) Deadnesse in going about the service of God, Psal. 119.37. Quicken me in
thy way, of this else where. (5.) Narrownesse to take in God, opposed to an
inlarged and wide heart, Psal. 119.
32. Psal. 81.10. and straitening of
heart, when the soul is so hampered, that he cannot speak, Psal. 77.4. unbeleef clipps the wings of the Spirit, and layes on
fetters, which may come from the wicked company, and may be laid on by our
selves, Psal. 39.1,2. (6) There is an
Atheist heart to hate the existence of God, of Christ, of a Gospel,
7. There is an evill heart of unbeleef to depart from the Living God, Heb. 3.12.
8. A heart that deviseth, ploweth, or delveth wicked imaginations, Prov. 6.18. As Prov. 3.29. Plow not evill against thy neighbour. Hos.10 13. You have plowed iniquity, Such plots are forged against the people of God, Matth. 27.1. Nah. 1.11.
9. A proud heart (1.) resisted of God. (2.) Farrest from the lowly and meek heart of Christ, Matth. 11.29. Phil. 2.5,6,7. (3.) Most near to Satans heart, 1 Tim. 3.6.
Q. Why are we more ashamed of an unclean lustfull heart, then of a proud heart? Ans. A proud heart is deeper guiltinesse, and nearer to Satans nature; And pride and unbeleef are sins more reproachfull to God, and incroach more upon his Throne, but there is more flesh in us then Spirit, and we think that there is more of a beast in uncleannesse.
Quest. But we are more ashamed of lying, falshood, and stealing, then of pride? Ans. There's more of being ashamed before men, it being a carnall sort of passion, then of being ashamed before God, and falshood and lying to men are fleshly evils against common honesty, but pride is a more Angel-sin, or a more God like sin, a spirituall sin, and pride is a sort of heart-heresie, by which we judge but blindly, we have reason to ascend and climb aloft to
Gods roome, Gen. 3.5,6. Isai. 14. 13. because of knowledge, parts, power.
10. There is deceitfulnesse and self-deceiving in the heart, Isa. 44.20. the idolater feeds on ashes, a deceived heart hath turned him aside, that he cannot deliver his soul, nor say, is there not a lie in my right hand, Obadiah 3. The heart is the greatest liar on earth, to say and gain-say.
11. There is a wicked fearfulnesse in the heart to do evill, Jude 12. feeding themselves without fear, 3 Sam. 1. 14. was thou not affraid (saith David to the Amalekite) to put out thine hand to destroy the Lords Anointed? Its a godly fear to tremble alwayes, at feasting, speaking, hearing, sleeping, company, Prov. 28.14. 1 Pet.1. 17. Phil. 2.13. Job. 1.5. And in all there ly snares within, and without the house.
12. There is a wicked flintinesse
of heart, we shall have peace, though
we both hear cursing and walk loosly, Deut.
29.19. we are fallen, but Ephraims
stout heart (2.) will rise whether God will, or not, Isa. 9.9. And (3.) the King of
13. There is a wicked hardening of the heart, when men make the Lord his word and mighty works the contrair party, Exod. 5.1,2,3. Exod. 7. 10,13,16,20,23. Exod. 8.5,6,7,15,17,18,19. Isai. 6. 9, 10. Zech. 7. 8, 9, 11, 12. Ezek. 2. 3, 4. Ezek. 3.7,8. Mat. 13.13,14,15. Act. 13.44,45,46. and oppose God in his word and works.
14. There is a sinfull dulnesse upon the heart, by which men are as weaned children, line upon line, line upon line, can do them no good, Isai. 29. 9, 10, 11. Here it is to be observed that we cannot Preach Omnipotency, nor perswade a world to be created, nor a new heart to be infused, nor can we Preach to a Wolf to become a meek Lamb, nor threaten the Sun to rise at midnight, we but
speak words about the new birth, the husband-man but
breaks the earth with his plough, but God makes the corn to grow, and he only,
not that the word is not the instrument of conversion of souls,
15. There is a froward heart, Pro. 17.20. that perverteth and is crafty [foreign] to pervert.
16. A wicked heart, Pro.26.23. set
on evil, Eccl. 8. 11.17. foolishnesse
is bound to the heart, Pro.22.15. a dissembling heart, when seven
abominations are in it, Pro. 26.25.
(1.) We take not heed to the imaginations, and are not grieved for the
constitution of the heart, for actuall sins make originall sin to swell, as two
floods running into one maketh a
ye people in whose heart is my Law. Psal. 40.8. I delight to do thy will, O God, thy Law is within my heart. Its true there is a new delight in the heart, but not a delight of the new heart, Isa. 58.2. Joh. 5.35. for a delight in the Gospel as a good thing, not as a good Gospel, a delighting in Christ as a Prophet that feeds them, not in Christ as a Redeemer,Joh. 6.26. that saves them, is not a new heart.
2. The new heart is a heart universall, wholly for God as God, there is an inteernesse in it, when the whole spirit and soul and body is kept blamelesse, 1 Thess. 5.23.1 Pet. 1.18.[foreign] in holy conversations and godlinesses, 2 Pet. 3. 11. Half a globe, though exquisitely plained, or half a cart wheell, is not a globe nor a cart wheell. Externall things may be devided, one may be an hearing Professor, and a drunken Professor, and a praising, a singing Professor in publick, and not a praying nor a believing Professor in private, spirituall duties, cannot be devided: half a faith, half a love, is not faith, no love, saving grace is an essence that consists in indivisibili, and cannot be parted.
3. A new heart is a fixed and established heart by Grace, it's a new state, not a new transient flash, a new heart, Deut. 5. 27. All that the Lord our God will speak unto thee, we will hear, but the Lord saith, verse 19. O! that there were such a heart in them, but it is not in them.
4. 1 Sam. 10. 9. God gave Saul an other heart, then a changed heart is not a new heart, a new spirit or a new gift in Jehu is not a new heart; It's not newnesse that makes the heart new, but Gods new ingraving, Jer. 31.33.
5. A heart keeped with all keeping is a new heart, Prov. 4.23. both the words note exact diligence in keeping as watchmen and sheepherds with all keeping, at all times, Psal. 119. 119. some pull their hearts to pray and hear, but not while the sabbath, or under a storme of conscience: and the heart is a word in some company, not at other times and in other company.
6. The heart is new, where the affections are all faith (as it were) and all sanctified, reason and zeal is a lump of angry reason, and fear a masse of shining reverence; and love only soul sicknesse and pure adherence to God, the instinct of faith wholly on God, as the last and only end. (2.) The heart is new when the
affections are equivocally, or at least, at the second hand set upon the creature, but as nothing can be seen, but what either is colour, or affected with colour, so nothing is fixedly sought after, but God, he onely feared and served, Mat. 4. 10. Deut. 10. 20. only desired, Psal. 73. 25. only loved, Deut. 10. 12. Cant. 3.2,3. the soul sick of love for only only Christ, Cant. 2. 5. Cant. 5. 8. he only trusted in, Jer. 17.5,7. Psal. 62. 5. (1.) Nothing is all good and all desirable but God, and God in Christ, Mat. 19. 17. Cant. 5. 16. the shadow of the Sun in the fountain is not the reall Sun: the stirrings of the pulse of the affections towards the shadowed good of the creature, should be lent, and like the beating of the pulse of a dying man, with a godly contradiction, loving and not loving, joying and not joying, 1 Cor. 7. 29,30. mourning and not mourning.
1. The place of Evangelick works in the New Covenant. 2. Possession of glory and right to glory considerably different. 3. A twofold right to life. 4. We are not justified by Works. 5. The place of declarative justification by Works, Jam. 2. discussed. 6. Faith and Works different. 7. Possession of life and right to life cleared. 8. Faith and finall believing both commanded in the Law, finall unbelief not the sin forbidden in the Gospel onely. 9. How life is promised to works Evangelick.
It's a grave and weighty Question
to rid marches between the two Covenants in their conditions, the one requiring
the obedience of Works, the other Faith: It's not to be said that for fifeteen
hundred years no man did doubt of the necessitie of good Works, Paul propones the objections of the Antinomians, Shall we sin and continue in
sin, that Grace may abound?
O! what pronnesse in us to suck out of the doctrine of free Grace poyson, how kindly to desire there were no Law against treason, because the Prince pardons; All sin is virtually Atheisme, to wish the existence of a Law, and so of a just holy and unchangeable God were not, and we can hardly believe this. And 2. what rising of heart and carnall reason is there against the first acts of providence, why, and what necessity was there to make a Law to forbid the eating of an Aple, God foreseeing that thence should come the ruine and endlesse damnation of all. It had been good God had never created such a Tree. 2. That the eating thereof had never been forbidden. 3. That it had never had such a name, as the the tree of knowledge, for it deceived Evah. 4. That God had not given free-will to Adam. 5. That he had given him confirming grace in the first moment of Creation. But,
Observe 1. Satan started first the dispute concerning the equity of the Law, and that we are Disciples of and apprentises to Satan, when we tosse and rackot arguments in our carnall heart-Logick against the holy Law of God, Gen. 3. 2. and make the heart a ferrie boat to cary messengers and divellish thoughts hither and yonder, in questioning the goodnesse of the Law, and the acts of providence, and therefore it is speaking Grace, to close with the sweetnesse not only of the Law written in the heart, and these inbred principles of honesty and truth, to hurt none, to obey God, (for Satan raised not the first dispute about these) but with all the judgements and testimonies of God, as David, Psal. 119.127,128. vers. 86. All thy commandements are faithfull, 1 Sam. 12. 7. Stand still that I may reason with you of all the righteous acts of the Lord. Its a mind like Christs that hath an heart-prejudice at no one command, by an other, and is sweetly friended with all that God commands, Math. 3. 15. It becomes us to fulfill all rightenesse, and O! how sweet to have no heart quarrell, but a sweet stouping of soul unto, and an adoring of God in all providences, and acts or decrees he hath concluded or done in time or from Eternitie. These draw deep in the decree of Reprobation, God had an hatefull designe against me. 2. The Gospel is an untrue and fabulous dispensation. What a spirit is Galænus who reproacheth Moses because he teacheth not that God works ever and by necessity
of nature, what is most good for the creature. And that Prince who said, that if he had been Counsellour to God in the time of the Creation, many things should have been created ordinatrius & melius, in a better order and state, then they were. Let the man be remembred who called the Gospel a fable, and the spirits who reproach the Scripture as inkie wisedom. 1. A bare dead forme bare flesh, &c. and weak ones under desertion, who feed upon reports and lying news from Satan, God hated me before time, and carries on a design of eternall ruine to me, therefore I have no right to hear, to pray, to eat, to sleep. 2. Yet the necessity of good works is asserted by Luther, the Augustine Confess. and Apol. Arti. 20. doc$nt nostri, &c. Evangelick works are necessarie, not to merite, but by the will and commandement of God: Calvin calleth them inferiour causes of the possession of our salvation. The dispute began upon occasion of the book called Interim Anno--M. I$LXVIII. and in Colloquie at Altenburge, Malanthone and the Divines of Wittenberge assented to the necessitie of good works, but the followers of Flaccius Illyricus dissented: The Authors of the book of Concord condemne these of Flaccius their way, and deny a necessity of efficiency in works to deserve salvation, but yeeld a necessity of their presence, that the work of salvation be not hindered.
3. These distinctions are necessary. 1. There is a jus and right to Gospel life eternall. And 2. there is actuall possession of life eternall.
2. There is a twofold jus, One by the purchase of merit, and the payed ransome of blood; There is a right secundary by promise, every promise giveth a right in a manner: but its unproper.
3. There is promise of life formally federall. 2. There is a promise of life consequenter federall.
4. There is an order of things, one going before the other as the Antecedent and the Consequent, and in order of cause and effect.
5. Law-obedience doth much differ from Gospel-obedience, as Law-commands from Gospel-commands.
6. GOD sent his Sonne to justifie persons, but not to justifie works, not to make inherent obedience perfect or our righteousnesse before God.
1. If the new Covenant be considered strictly and formally in its essence, he
that beleeveth whether his faith be weake or strong is justified and saved, Joh, 3.18,36. Joh. 5.24. Act. 15.9,10,11.
Hence Mr. Sibs excellently, Know that in the Covenant of Grace God requires the truth of Grace, not any certain measure, and a spark of fire is aswell fire as the whole element thereof, we must look to Grace in the sparkle as well as the whole flame, all have not the like strong, yet the like precious faith, whereby they lay hold and put on the perfect righteousnesse of Christ, a weak hand may receive a rich Jewell, a few grapes will shew that the plant is a vine not a thorne: There is a roome in heaven for thee who judges thy self; for the number of lambes, and babes weak in the faith in this Kingdome, do far exceed the number of the strong and aged in Christ; for the Scripture names the whole flock, little ones, babes, his sheep, they are not a flock of fathers and strong ones.
Asser. 2. There is a right to life by promise, he that beleeves shall be saved. Promissio facit jus, & creat debitum: Godlinesse hath the promise of this life, and of that which is to come; And because a promise as a promise cannot create an equality betwixt the work and the wages, as is proven, this is an unproper right, and not proper debt, and takes not away the nature of a free gift: This is no consequence at all, the performing of the condition of the Covenant of Works doth justifie Adam by Law-works, so as he is no sinner, hath fulfilled the Law, hath right to life eternall; Ergo, to beleeve to the end, and fulfill to the end, and fulfill the condition of the Covenant of Grace doth justifie the beleever, by Evangelick works, make him no sinner, but a perfect fulfiller of the Covenant of Grace, and one who hath due right by working to life eternall. Certainly then, 1. doing Evangelick gives us as good right to eternall life, without the price and ransome of blood, as doing legall gives to the same life. 2. When we sin and fall in atrocious offences, Adulteries, Paricide, Robbing,
we have as good right to justification by works, and life eternall by Evangelick works, suppose he be a robber all his life, as was the repenting theef, as Adam, suppose he had perfectly fulfilled the Law. Now though believing be the condition of the Covenant of Grace, it is of a farre other nature then perfect doing, to the end, and constant fulfilling of the whole Law, in thought, word, and deed with all the heart, and the soul and mind, and all the strength. For there is no sin here, and so no place for punishing justice, or wrath, none can so believe, but he sins and so deserves everlasting wrath. If it be said, that by the Covenant of Works he doeth deserve it, but not by the Covenant of Grace, for Christ hath merited to him life eternall. Ans. 1. We speak now of the right that a Believer hath by Evangelick works to justification and life, as contradistinguished from the merits of Christ, this opinion saith that a man is justified by Evangelick doing, because God hath made the like promise, and the like jus and right by promise, to doing Evangelick, that he made to Law-doing, if Christs merits be added to qualifie Evangelick works, to adde to them the worth that they have, then Christs merits must give life eternall by way of merit, or a vertue of meriting condignly to our Evangelick doing, as Papists say, and so Christ hath made us saviours and redeemers of our selves, and this is a right to life ex condig no more then Adams most perfite Law-obedience had. 2. The Covenant of Grace commanding faith, doeth by this opinion command all that the Law of Works doeth, but in an Evangelick way, that they be done sincerely: Ergo, it must forbid all sin which the Law forbids; But the Law forbids not only unbelief, finall unbelief, but all the works of the flesh: Also Christ must come [foreign] to louse and dissolve the Law, which he denyes, Math. 5. for if the Covenant of Grace condemne nothing but finall unbelief, Christ in this Covenant must dissolve the Law; but Christ sayeth, he that breaks or teacheth men to break these is the least of the Kingdome of God.
But there is an other jus and right to life eternall, by which Christ dying hath satisfied the Law, expiated our sins, restored as much and more glory to God by passive obedience, by his sufferings, as we had taken glory from God by our evill doing, and so merited to us life eternall. If any say abusing that place, Rev. 22.
14. that we obtain this [foreign] and right to the Tree
of Life, and to Christ our life and everlasting glory (which is our only right,
the only Charter of blood) by keeping the Commandements Evangelically; he must
say that we first may keep the Commandements Evangelically before we have right
to life, to Christ, and so before we beleeve. 2. That we merit Christs right or
merite by doing, and that by Evangelick works, we buy right to Christ and
Christs merits, and so Christ hath not merited to us a jus and right and title to life everlasting by dying, and grace and
a gracious right to do his Commandements by his death, but that we, by doing
his Commandements, do earne and sweat for a right to Heaven, which is to say,
that we by doing, merite and deserve the price of Redemption, and that we
merite Christ to our selves, by doing, whereas it is he and he alone, that hath
merited to us Grace and Glory, and all title to Heaven. Not to say that a
Charter of life from such a noble Superiour as Christ by the purchase of blood,
and of such blood, the blood of God, Act.
20.28. is some better then to have eternall liveliehood and free-hold from our
duty and lubrick best works, which are polluted with sin, and by which, though
we were Evangelically conscious to our
selves of nothing, yet should we not be therefore justified, 1 Cor. 4.4. for the righteousnesse in
which is Davids blessednesse before
Christ, and Abrahams before the Law,
and ours under the Gospel, is in forgiving
of iniquity, covering of sin, not imputing of sin, Rom. 4.1,2,3,4,5,6,7.
But in all the Scripture our sins are never said to be pardoned and not imputed
to us, by our own most Evangelick doing, for we are justified freely by his Grace, through the Redemption that is in Christ
Jesus, Rom. 3.24. not by the Redemption that is in us, and are washen from our sins in his Blood, Eph. 1.7.
and also in order
to the end, to justifie us before God, and to save us. And if so, all in Christ may
say, we have no sin, contrary to
And if James be to prove that we are justified by works, and yet mean, that both faith and works concur as causes,
though faith more principally, how can Paul
deny that we are justified by works, If Peter
and John jointly work a miracle and
heal the creeple man, suppose the influence of Iohn in the miracle be more, yet it is not to be denyed, that Peter wrought the miracle. Nor doth the
Scripture say that we are more principally justified by faith, and lesse
principally justified by works, but the places alledged for salvation by works
(if works have a causative influence) specially Matth. 25. speaks more for the preheminence of works. Nor doth the
Scripture insinuate any thing of the first and second Justification, or of
growing in Justification, in having our sins not imputed to us to our very day
of death; and the Question must be,
circumcision, or not,
collaterall causes in our Justification before God, as
the Papists contend; but the faith which James
excludes from Justification, is no faith at all. But only (1.) fair words to
the hungry and naked, and giving them supply for no necessity either of hunger
or nakednesse, and which cannot save,
and so is no faith, and so can have no saving influence with works to justifie
and save, but such is the faith which James
excludes v. 14, v. 15. the faith of Paul,
2. It is to be observed that James maketh mention of two sorts of faiths, ch. 2. which the Adversarie confounds. 1. All alongs, v. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20. he gives vive characters of a dead painted faith, which is in [foreign] in the vaine empty boaster, ver. 20. 2. He showes us of a lively faith of Abraham, which wrought with his Works, now it is a lewd error to make Abrahams faith, and the faith of believing Rahab of the same nature with the faith of the vain empty Hypocrite, who's faith is nothing but fair words, and with the faith of Divels. So the Papists, Lorinus, Estius, Stapleton, Mavochius, Bellarmine make it an Hypocriticall and dead faith, and lively faith as Abrahams was, a vitall receiving of Christ and a believing the Lord, so as believing is counted
for righteousnesse, to differ not in nature and essence from the faith of the Devils, whereas in the faith of sound Believers there is a Godly submitting and leading captive of the understanding to the obedience of Christ, because it is the Lord that speaks, and so a receiving of the Word as the Word of God, 2 Cor. 10.5. 1 Thes. 2. 13. Math. 22. 32. which is not in the faith of Divels. (3.) There is in it a receiving of Christ, Joh. 1. 11. a fiduciall resting of the heart upon God in Christ. And the word [foreign] is to conside, to betake himself to a lurking place, where one may be safe from a storme, Psal. 2. 12. Psal. 11. 1. Psal. 31. 2. Deut. 32. 37. Psal. 118 9. Judg. 9.15. come and trust under my shaddow. And this is contradistinguished from the Divels and Hypocrites who cannot seek their lodging nor a hiding place against wrath in the Lord.
2. It is to lean and rest the body, 2 Sam. 1. 6. Saul leaned upon his spear, and by a Metaphore it is to cast the burden upon the Lord, Isa. 50.10. Psal. 55. 22. hence the word that notes a staffe, 2 Sam. 22. 18. Isa. 3. the Lord hath broken the stay and the staffe of bread, Isa. 30.1. and this is to be done often, when there is no present duty to be done, nor any work required of us, but only a fiduciall relying upon the Lord alone, as at the Red Sea Moses and the people were to leane upon JEHOVAH only, not to act, which cannot be said of the faith of Divels and Hypocrites. (3.) It is to look with delight and confidence, Isa. 17. 7. as oppressed servants, Psal. 123. 1, 2. (4) There is a word that notes to be silent, not to speak, not to move, Josh. 10. 12, 13. the Sun was silent, it moved not: It notes a Godly submission that the soul dar not speak against God, Psal. 37. 7. rest in the Lord: LXX. subditus esto Domino, Psal. 62.6. whence faith teacheth us to submit and hold our peace and lay the mouth in the dust, as a spirit dantoned of God, Lev. 10. 3. Joh. 1. 21. Lam. 3. 28. Ezek. 16. 63. which is far from Hypocrites. (5.) To believe is to cleave to God, from a root that signifies to adhere as things glewed together with pick or glew, Psal. 63. 9. Josh. 23.8.
Deut. 11. 22. so we become one Spirit with the Lord, 2 Cor. 3. (6.) It is a word of near adherence [foreign] to lean firmly upon any with hope of securitie, 2 King. 18.5. hast thou leaned upon this reed? Hos. 10.13. Psal. 13. 6. Psal. 31. 7. Deut. 12. 10. Thou shalt dwell safely, confidently, it places the soul under the Rock of Omnipotencie. (7) It is to roll thy self upon God, and is borrowed from heavy bodies, losh. 10. 18. Roll great stones to the mouth of the cave, Genes. 29. 3. Psal. 22. 9. he trusted in the Lord, rolling himself on the Lord. Prov. 16. 3. commit thy works unto the Lord, and thy thoughts shall be established. Cart-wright sayeth it is a Metaphore from men who, being oppressed with a burden, transfer it off themselves upon one who is mightier and stronger: it is excellent when the heart rolles all its cares upon the Lord, and disburdens it self upon him. (8.) There is a word that noteth to leane, to stay or stablish, to strengthen, Isa. 48. 2. 2 Chron. 32. 8. the people rested themselves upon the word of Ezekiah, Cant. 2. 5. stay me with flagons, Psal. 71. 6. I have leaned upon thee from the womb, and it notes to draw near, Ezek. 24. 2. so it is to strengthen and make strong the heart that is trembling and shaking if it be not stayed upon God. And shall all these excellencies of faith, be in the faith of Divels and Hypocrites? and therefore it is most absurd to make the faith of Abraham all one in nature with the faith of Divels and Hypocrites, and to make the difference only in having Works, and no Works, as if there were the same heart leaning, soul rolling, and cleaving to the Lord by faith in Abraham, and in Hypocrites and Divels who tremble.
3. The Scripture, Abraham believed and it was counted to him for righteousnesse: Is not Gen. 22. when he did justifie himself by the work of sacrificing Isaac: But it is Gen. 15.6. when the son of promise Isaac, a type of Christ is promised to him: at which time there was no work at all required of Abraham, but only believing the promise, for what should Abraham act or do to further the fulfilling of that promise, for he believed that Gospel promise in the mean time, with a faith lively, and having with it as a concomitant a resolution to walk before God and be perfect, but then the Text shall say, Gen. 15. 6. Abraham resolved to be fruitfull
in good works, when he heard the promise, and that resolution of good works was counted to him for righteousnesse which is most violent.
4. Who so are justified causally
and in the sight of God by Workes, as
James saith, to him workes are counted as the formall cause, for so James from Scripture, ver. 23. Abraham, [foreign], believed God and it was counted to him for
righteousnesse. Which sayeth, by that faith he was declared or by that he
was justified, which was imputed to him for righteousnesse. But his beleeving
or his faith living and working like the body quickened with the Spirit, was
counted to him for righteousnesse. Now except it be yeelded that James speaks of two faiths, one dead and
empty, ascribed to the hypocrite, ver.
14, 15, 16. another lively and working, ascribed to Abraham, ver. 23. and except this be denied, that Abraham was justified, ver. 23. not by that same faith; It must
follow that Abrahams empty beleeving,
ver. 23. was that which was counted to him for righteousnesse, Gen.
15. 6. but James cannot be so
understood, but when he saith, the Scripture
Gen. 15.6. was fulfilled; for his
faith in beleeving the promised seed, Gen.
15. he shows that Abraham was
justified by faith without works, as Paul,
Rom.4. and when he saith he was justified by works in offering his son, as Gen. 22. he saith he was not declared
just, or not justified by the empty and idle faith of the hypocrites; but by a
faith that did prove it self to be lively. So that James proveth that we are not justified by a dead faith that
neither hath, nor can have good works. As his Adversaries said, and Paul proves,
Abraham was justified by works, when he offered his son, vers. 22. he cannot infer, vers. 22. thou sees that his faith wrought with his works: What faith? He had spoken of works, vers. 21. not one word of Abrahams faith, yet he saith, because Abraham was justified, that is declared to be really, before God, to his own conscience and others justified, his faith did work in a lively way as reall in and by his works, and you see that Abrahams faith, Gen. 15.6. was perfected by works, Gen. 22. when he offered his son. Now it was not perfected as touching the nature of it, and the act of justifying, for Paul, Rom. 4. cites Gen. 15. 6.to prove that Abraham was justified by that faith in beleeving the promise of the blessed seed, some 25 years, as others reckon 30. years before he sacrificed Isaac, Gen 22. so that it must follow that Abraham was not justified by works, nor his faith perfect in its lively operations untill he offered his son Isaac: when the contrair of this, the Scripture tells us, for by faith he left his Countrey, C. 12. By faith beleeving the promise he was justified, Rom. 4. many years before: Therefore these words, seest thou his faith, must mean that his faith came out to view by his works.
But there be learned and godly Protestants who grant that James must speak of Justification reall and before God, and not of declared Justification before men only? Answ. Its true, and easie to name them. But these are subordinate: James speaks not of a faith only declared, nor of a justification onely declared to the world: But of a declared Justification that is reall before God. 2. That is declared to the man himself, and to the world. And that James speaks of a Justification before God, the Text saith: Because he saith, ver. 14. What can that faith profite? Which is empty, he must mean, what can it profite before God, to save and justifie? As the word, 1 Cor. 13.3. if I have not love [foreign], it profits me nothing before God. 2. Can that faith (it is not well translated leaving out the particle in the new Translation, can faith save him?) save him? Then he must speak also of reall faith, and so reall salvation and so of justification before God. 3. The examples of the Justification of Abraham, of Rahab, which were reall, must say something to the same purpose. 2. That he speaks of reall Justification to the mans own conscience as
well as to the world if clear in the Text also. For James speaks to the conscience and
privitie of the man who saith that he is justified, and hath faith, vers. 18. [foreign] 19. [foreign], thou hast faith, thou beleeves, the
Devils also beleeve, he would have the hypocrite to discusse his own
conscience, and solidely to know, whether his Faith and Justification be reall
or not; And James wakens all visible
professours in this Epistle (as Iohn
also doth) to try his Religion whether it be true and solide, or vain: by Chap. 1. being a doer of the Word, and not a hearer only, 23, 24. by visiting the fatherlesse. vers. 27. by
loving and respecting the poor that are Godly, as well as the rich,
And therefore the Arminians and others do but lose their labour, who say Iames doeth not speak here of Justification declared to the world, because the world cannot judge infallibly whether our works by which we are declared to be justified, are sincere or not. For 1. we say that Iames doth speak of Justification declared to the world, for he speaks of real Justification before God but as declared, not to the world only, but to the conscience also of the doer. 2. Because the world can not infallibly judge of our Justification and works, therefore they cannot judge at all. Its a loose consequence: For we may declare our selves to our own conscience and to others by our good works, that we are before God justified. Otherwise because men cannot see our good works, nor the principles from which they proceed, whether from saving faith or not, nor the ends for which they are, whether for the glory of God, or not, men should not glorifie our heavenly Father: Contrair to Matth. 5.16. nor should the Gentiles glorify God in the day of visitation: As 1 Pet. 2. 12. because they cannot infallibly know whether they be good works or not and done in faith and for God: Nor is Abraham declared to be justified because of a secret heart-intention to offer his son to God in the court of men (but in the court of his own conscience he may) yet his journeying to
the place where he was to sacrifice his son, his building
an Altar, his laying on wood, his binding his son and stretching out his hand
to kill him, may well declare him to be a justified man to the world and to
men. Trelcatius, the Professours of
for this way to teach) but finall unbeleef, he no more needs forgivenesse of sins and the blood of sprinkling, nor pardoning grace, then the Elect Angels, or Adam in the state of innocency, and to that, Prov. 20.9. as to that, Eccles. 7. 20. 1 Ioh. 1. Who can say I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin? The man Evangelically justified can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sinne. 4. No needs such a man pray, forgive me my sins, as I forgive, &c. for he is justified from all Law-sins, who is inherently holy and Evangelically just: And so the Gospel is a new Law which does not forbid all sins that the Law forbids, and the man is not under sinne, though he sinne against the love of Christ. According to that, if ye love me keep my Commandements, Joh.14.15. so he once, ere he die, beleeve. For the Law (say the Authors) forbids not unbeleef, nor any Evangelick unthankfulness against the Law of a ransome-payer, which yet, I judge the Law of Nature and Nations condemnes: The Covenant of Grace forbids no sin, but finall unbeleef, and the beleever can not be guilty of that except he fall away.
5. And it may justly be asked, whether the beleever Evangelically justified, who needs no grace of pardon of Redemption from sin in order to the Covenant of Grace, needs the grace of renovation to keep him to beleeve, for he needs no pardon for the weaknesse of his finall beleeving, for the smallest weak faith is a fulfilling of the Covenant of Grace. To these adde, if James mean by [foreign], faith alone, v. 24. by which he sayes we are not justified, [foreign], no other then the dead faith, ver. 20. and the faith which cannot save, the faith of fair words to the hungry and naked, when the vain man gives him nothing necessary for his body, 16. the faith without works, 17. the faith that cannot be shown to men, 18. such a faith as devils, 19. and vain hypocrites boast of, 20. then sure the conclusion is for us, and agreeable to the scope of Iames, v. 24. [foreign], ye see then a man is justified before men and to himself, and so really declared before God,
justified and saved by works as the fruits of saving faith, [foreign], and not by faith only which is dead and without works. For 1. he cannot exclude saving and lively faith: For that beleeving God is counted to Abraham for righteousnesse, saith Iames, ver.23. for then the conclusion should contradict the premisses, and he should say, Abraham was justified by sound and lively beleeving. Ergo, we are not justified by only sound and lively beleeving. 2. The Adversaries, Socinians, and Arminians, who by this Text, say we are justified by works, know no Gospel-faith, by which we are justified, but faith including essentially new obedience, the crucifying of the old man, the walking in the Spirit, and repentance; as else where I cite. Therefore when Iames saith we are not justified by faith only, he must mean a naked dead assent: as in the former verses; We are not justified; and that is it which we say: Iames denies not but sayes that Abraham beleeved, Gen. 15.
6. (It is only beleeving but
lively and not dead, not a naked assent, which was counted to him for
righteousnesse) and Gen. 15.
way and Arminians
also, that we are not justified by faith only, which is a true and generall
assent to the Word of God, for they teach that in the first Justification, we
are justified by faith only without works, as Paul proves, but in the second Justification when a man of just is
made more just (say they) he is justified by works; as saith Iames, c. 2. Now by this they are forced
to say, Iames speaks not of the first
Justification, but of the second, but beside that the Scripture knows not two
Justifications, Iames must deny that
the unconverted hypocrites, and Rahab
the harlot were justified by only faith, as Paul
saith, and it were most incongruous to teach unconverted ones who never knew
the first Justification, how they were not justified in the second
Justification. And if James be
speaking of the nature and causes of the same Justification before God only,
with Paul and not of the effects
thereof, it were false that James
saith (with reverence to the holy Lord) that we are not justified by faith
[foreign] without works, for Paul
sayes it, and proves it strongly from the Scripture, and never insinuates that
we are justified in a second Justification by works. And sure he should not
have denyed all the Jews, all the Gentiles, all the world, Rom. 3 9,19,29,30. David
a man according to Gods heart, and
much in communion with God, when he penned the 32. Psalm, and Abraham a
beleever and effectually called, Gen.
12. and justified, when he, Gen.
15.6. beleeved the promise of the seed,
Yea when James saith we are not justified [foreign] only, he must mean sidem solitariam, a faith solitary which hath no works conveying it, as man sees not with eyes that are solitary and plucked out of the heart, and separated from hearing, smelling, and the senses, though faith, if true and properly so called (as they say this is) must justifie as the eye sees only [foreign], and the eare onely, not the eye, hears, now this faith hath a causative influence in Justification as well as works (if it be proper and true faith, as they say it is, as the body without the spirit hath the nature of a body) and so James had no more ground for him to say, ye see then that we are not justified by faith only, then to say, ye see then that we are not justified by works only. For works separated from faith
are no lesse dead works & cannot justifie, 1 Cor. 13.1,2,3,4,5. Then faith separated
from works, & really pulled from them, as in an hypocrite,is a true faith.
Obj.When James saith that a man is justified by works, not by faith only, he maketh
faith and works concomitant in that procurement of justification, and in that
kind of causality, for he saith not, as he is commonly interpreted (not by
faith which is alone) but by faith only [foreign]. Ans. He is not more
commonly, nor soundly and truely interpreted, he is not justified by faith which is alone, fide solitariâ, by
dead faith. For solâ side justific amur.
Faith hath the only vertue of justifying as an instrument, and so is the
Adverbe [foreign] Solùm taken, Matth. 5. 47. If ye salute your brethren [foreign] only, what do ye more then
Publicans? Where [foreign] notes duties only naturall excluding these which
only converts in a spirituall way can do, Matth.
8.8. Only say the word, [foreign] it
clearly saith that a mandat of Omnipotency only in CHRIST could heal the sick
servant; but yet that Omnipotency is not really separated from justice,
wisedom, mercy, Matth. 9. 21.
[foreign] If I only touch him, I shall be
whole. But the act of touching was conjoined with the act of hearing: who hath touched me? Yet the act of
hearing had no causative influence in the drawing vertue out of Christ, but
only the act of touching did extract the vertue, as Christ saith, Luk. 8. 50. Mar. 5.36. Fear not, [foreign],
only beleeve, saith Christ to the Ruler; can it be said, but this excludes
works as touching the apprehending of the power and mercy of Christ in raising
the dead Damosel. And yet that beleeving was not solitary, but conjoined with
love, reverence, submission, 35. So Luk.
8.50. Mat. 21.19. And Act. 3. 16. The faith that is by Christ hath given this creeple perfect soundnesse.
Heb. 11.30. By faith the walls of
as they teach, citing Rev. 22.14. and more merit, ex pacto Euangelico, life eternall: and so our works and merits must be joint causes with the blood of Christ, and the Martyrs blood and Christs blood must have paralel and collateral influence with Christs blood to buy right to the Tree of Life; Yea and Paul already justified, even in the progresse of that which is called his Evangelick Justification, Phil. 3. would be in another condition, 9. That I may be found in him not having mine own righteousnesse which is of the Law, but that which is through the faith of Christ, the righteousnesse which is of God by faith. And why should Arminians and Socinians deny it to be Pauls own. For 1. it is inherent righteousnesse. 2. It is not infused as Papists say, but acquired as they teach. 3. It came (say they) from Pauls own free-will indifferent to will or nill.
But how is the Scripture fulfilled in Abrahams beleeving, Iam. 2. 23.
Ans. The Apostle spake often of faith [foreign] and beleeving, v. 14. twice, v. 17. once, v. 18. thrice, v. 19. twice, v. 20. once, v. 22. twise, that is nine times, thereof Emphatically, v. 23. by way of excellency the Scripture was then fulfilled, Abraham [foreign], beleeved, and it was counted to him for righteousnesse, as its written, Gen. 15. 6. before God and man and to his own conscience, when he offered his son Isaac upon the altar. That was reall, visible and conspicuous believing and righteousnesse, to deny himself so far for God: For James is much for Religion made known to a mans self and to men, and hath far other Adversaries in the other extremity then Paul had, even the old Gnosticks, who, in opposition to the Jews and Pharisees, laid aside the Law, doing of the Law, Jam. 1. 22, 23. all works, c. 2. 14. all conscience of bridling the tongue, c. 13. 1, 2. of peaceable and mortified living, c. 4. c. 5. and thought if godlinesse to hear the word in the Assemblies, ch. 2. 1, 2, 3. without love to the Brethren, and to keep in their head a room, empty faith, and professed fair, and gave good words, but no garments to the naked, v. 14, 15. And James had good cause to treat of a visible and declared faith, but yet not meerly declared, but which was reall and can save, 14. and of justification such, as that of Abraham and Rachab, as was sensible
and reall and not in a bare profession: For Iames speaks of a profiting and saving faith, Iam. 2. 14. What doth it profite, &c. Can faith save him? Another devise is here alledged, of a formed faith animated with charity and that justifies (say Papists) and an unformed faith void of charity, and that, say they, doth not justifie: And the same way, but in other expressions, Arminians and Socinians teach, that to believe and do good works, and to repent and walk in all the Commandements of Jesus Christ, is to believe, or compleat formed and Evangelick faith. But we distinguish them as the Scripture. Its true, Rom. 4.9. faith is said to be imputed to Abraham for righteousnesse, and so v. 3. v. 5. but it is not meant of the act or work of believing, that was counted for Abrahams formall righteousnesse, there should so no room be left to the satisfaction of Christ, reckoned to be ours: if all the righteousnesse of God, Rom. 10. 3. 1 Corin. 5. 21. Phili. 3. 9. should be turned over in an act of believing, mixt with much doubting and in our sinfull obedience; And the Socinians have more reason for them to say, there is no necessity of any reall satisfaction of blood payed for us, then the Arminians and Papists: For if our righteousnesse and inherent obedience may be of grace esteemed formall righteousnesse before God, by a free Evangelick paction and an act of Gods free-will: the Lord might have esteemed the eating of an aple, or any act of obedience, our formall righteousnesse; and so Christ dyed in vain, to become our righteousnesse, where an act of a sinfull man, or a deed of the Law, even the Law of faith is sufficient. What needs the shedding of the blood of God? Frustrà fit per plura, quod æquè benè potest fieri per pauciora. There's no need of reall satisfaction.
2. Faith imputed doth well bear the sense of the object that faith layes hold on, as our righteousnesse, Rom. 3.21. Now the
God without the Law is manifested. What righteousnesse of God? ver. 22. Even the righteousness of God through faith
of Jesus Christ unto all. Now if the righteousnesse of God is manifested
without one Law, to wit, of works, why not without another Law, of faith and of
inherent Gospel-righteousnesse? And what need that Christ should die, if the
act of beleeving should be that precious righteousnesse of God, and that
according to the Law of faith? This by the way. As hope is put for the object
hoped for? As
had been dead could no more have justified and saved him, then the hypocrites dead faith can save and justifie him, as James saith, 2.14,15,16, &c. So could not these worthies recorded, Heb. 11. have casten down the walls of Jericho, subdued Kingdomes, stopped the mouths of Lions by faith, if that faith had been as dead in its nature, as the faith of the vain Gnostick and Hypocrite, who saith to the brother or sister naked, depart in peace, be thou warmed and filled, and yet gives him not these things that are needfull to the body, Jam. 2.15,16. And this we must say, except we admit that the fancied faith of the Hypocrite can remove mountains, nor is it place to dispute whether Reprobates as Judas have saving faith in working miracles, it is sure their faith of miracles cannot be a Hypocriticall faith such as is, Iames 2. 14, 15, 16. (3.) The Scripture differenceth between faith and love, and faith and repentance. As 1. we are not once said to be justified by faith, but are never said to be justified by love, repentance, almes deeds. Its easie with an active ingine to labour to prove how faith includes love: And so doth hope and love include many other works and gifts of the Spirit, but the Holy Ghost distinguisheth them. As (2.) by faith as from a saving principle, Abraham sojourned in the Land, by faith Noah builded an Ark, Iacob blessed the sons of Ioseph, Moses would not be called the Son of Pharaohs daughter, yet to build an Ark is not to beleeve in God; we pray in faith, hear in faith, yet these are not the same.
(3.) Mar. 1. 15. Repent and beleeve, Act. 20. 21. Testifying repentance toward God, and faith toward our Lord Jesus, Heb. 6. 1. Not laying the foundation of repentance from dead works, and faith toward God, 1 Tim. 1.5. Love and a good conscience and faith unfained, Phil. 5. Love and faith, 1 Thes. 1. 3. We thank God, remembring your work of faith, and labour of love, Heb. 6. 10. Labour of love. 11. The full assurance of hope. 12. Faith and patience. We beleeve in Christ: but do we repent in Christ? 4. Faith is a leaning on God, Isa. 10.20. Isa. 26. 3. Isa. 50. 10. love is not so. Faith is a coming to God by way of affiance, Ioh. 5. 40. Matth. 11. 28. Ioh. 6. 37. a receiving of Christ, Ioh. 1. 11. an eating of his flesh, and drinking of his blood, Ioh. 6. 54, 55, 56.
not any of these can be said of love, of repentance, of new obedience.
(4.) If to beleeve in Christ as Lord and Law-giver be formally (for effectively and practically we may with that Learned and Pious D. Prestoun say it is) a consenting to Christs Dominion and Government over us to obey him (though to consent at the Corronation and to swear an oath of loyaltie to a King be widely different from obeying his Laws) as unbeleef is a rebellion against his Government, Luk. 19. 17. then well may Adam, in the Covenant of Works, be said to be justified and saved by faith; for if to beleeve in God Redeemer, be to give our selves to obey him as Lord Redeemer, and if this surrendering be the obedience of works by which we are justified and saved and perfectly righteous before God, upon the same reason to beleeve in God Law-giver and Creator in the Covenant of Works, and for Adam to surrender himself Covenant wayes, by a legall faith shall be the Law obedience of works by which Adam is justified and saved, and so he is saved by Law-faith, as we are by Gospel-faith.
And this is to be remembred, that for one to give himself to Christ as his Lord to be governed and commanded, and to be willing to obey him is neither formally faith (though it may be conjoined with beleeving) nor obedience, but an intention or purpose to obey. And 1. shall we then be justified by works, that is, by a purpose and intention to work? 2. There are in us May resolutions and purposes like May blossomes, that wither before Harvest, as some are willing but not obedient, Isa. 1.19. One saith he will go work in his fathers Vineyard, it may be he purposes to work, but yet he works not, Mat. 21.30. nor is a practicall purpose of heart to obey either obedience or faith formally.
5. If to be justified by faith in Christ as not only Jesus who saves, but as Lord who commands, then we are justified by love, for we are to love him not as Jesus only, but also as Lord, 1 Cor. 16. 22. Eph. 6.24. especially since all the works of the Law come under the command of love, Matth. 22. 3. 7. Luk. 7. 27. Deu. 6.5. Rom. 13.8.
(6.) All these, thy faith hath saved thee, Matth. 9. Luk. 7. only beleeve, must be of this truth, thy good works hath saved thee
only do good works. And it is strange that Paul saith, Eph. 2. 8. By grace ye are saved through faith, and that not of your selves, it is the gift of God. 9. Not of works, lest any man should boast. Nor could Paul make an opposition between grace and works (as in Rom. 11.6.) if the grace of beleeving and good works were one in the New Testament, for so we should be saved by works, and not by works. And Paul by an [foreign], takes that away. Yea but we are saved, that is, justified and delivered from obligation to wrath by the works of free-grace. He answers, nay, but neither are we saved or justified by these works of grace as by means or causes. For we are first saved and justified before we can do good works, for good works are the fruits of free-grace, since v. 10. we are his workmanship created in Christ Jesus (and so justified and saved in Christ Jesus) to good works, that we should walk in them. Yea and Paul undenyably removeth this doubt, 1 Cor. 4.4. I know nothing by my self (that is, by his grace I am free of such sinnes as bring condemnation, and so he must abound in works of grace) [foreign], yet thereby (and notwithstanding of all my inherent holinesse by works of grace) I am not justified. (7.) There should be no ground of gloriation and boasting more then this, by the Socinian and Arminian way, if we should be justified by works which come from free-will not determined by any grace either habituall or actuall which is merited by the death of Christ, but do proceed from pure free-will which separateth the beleever from the non-beleever: Then might we glory and boast that we are not in the debt of Christ or of his grace for that which is our formall righteousnesse before GOD, and so no flesh can say they are justified by grace, but that we are justified by nature the same way that Adam should have been justified without being beholden to CHRIST or to his death.
Asser. 3. There are not properly the same causes of the possession of Life Eternall, and of the righteousnesse of Life Eternall: The ransome of Christs blood is only the cause of the right. For jus or right to Life Eternall is a legall and a morall thing, ens morale, and hath a morall cause, as a man hath right to such a City being the Lord and owner thereof by birth, or money, or
conquesse, or by gift or grant of a Prince or of the Citizens themselves, but possession and injoying the houses and rents of the City is a Physicall thing, ens Physicum, and hath a Physicall cause, as eating, drinking, lodging, sleeping, wearing of cloaths to defend the body from the cold. So the legall right a man hath to the bread and lodging he hath in an Innes, but the Physicall causes, are hunger, appetite, bodily necessities so require and his pleasure to make use of such necessities. Hence the eating, drinking, may be Physically good, and the right, jus legale, very bad, he may have no right to the bread, when he comes to it only by spoil and rapine. So the legall right, jus legale to life eternall is the ransome of blood that Christ payed, our Goel, our friend and kinsman, to make the inheritance ours; but that great (I may say) almost Apostolick light, Mr. John Calvin saith good works, are, as it were, the inferiour causes of the possession of life. So simple possession is one thing, and quo jure aut titulo,but by what Law-right he possesseth, is another thing.
But 1. Good works are necessary, necessitate præcepti, by the command of
God and promise, 1 Thes. 4.4. 1 Cor. 6.20. Eph. 2.10. Matth. 28.20.
and where it is said, 1 Tim. 4.8. Godlinesse is profitable to all things,
having the promise of the life that now is, and of that which is to come.
[foreign] the promise is opposed to the Law. And that is a strong Argument, Gal. 3. 18. [foreign] If the inheritance be of the Law, it is no
more of promise, but God gave it to Abraham by promise, Covenant-promise: What is that to the Galatians and to us Gentiles? Much every way. For three notable points are therein. 1.
The heavenly inheritance promised to the seed, to Christ and his, ver. 16. not a poor earthly
same is made to the believing Galatians, the Gentiles and their seed, else Paul saith nothing for the Doctrine of Justification by faith to the Gentiles, contrair to the purpose of the Apostle. 3. There is an inheritance by Covenant-promise a promise of eternall life made not to works as the price that buyes the right: for, sure, then Christ must have dyed in vain. 3. Works are not necessary simply, necessitate medii: for then we must exclude all Infants; But the necessity of a Precept inferreth a necessity of means ordinary to all capable of a Command, that they do good, and sow to the Spirit, that they may reap of the Spirit life everlasting, Gal. 6. 8. (3.) They are necessary for the glory of God, Math. 5. 16. 1 Pet. 3. 1, 2. 1 Pet. 2. 12. (4.) They are necessary by the law of gratitude, which is common both to the Covenant of Works and of Grace, as we are debters to God for being, so to God-incarnate as ransoned ones for everlasting life, 1 Cor. 6. 20. Luke 1.75. 1 Pet. 1. 18. and eternall well-being.
But such as will have our works
the formall cause of our justification, they put them in the chair of Christs merite, and they must be
meritorious as Adams legall obedience
should have been: yea, but not, but by
and of gracious estimation, God so esteeming them, say they. True: but, as
is proven, neither was
and saving they now have. Yea, and since Christ hath redeemed us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet.1.18. by his blood: Why but, as he hath redeemed us from hell, and purchased salvation to us, by giving us grace by our own good works after conversion to redeem and justifie and save our selves, so he hath redeemed us from our vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1. 18. by giving us grace to do such works, before we be redeemed from our vain conversation, and before we be converted, as we may merite our conversion and Redemption from our vain conversation? If it be said, he absolutely and without any condition that is required, on our part, by his blood redeems all, whom he hath given his Son Christ to die for, from their vain conversation. 1. All mankinde without exception (for by their way he hath died for them all) must be redeemed from their vain conversation and converted: Nothing can be more false. 2. The Gospel to no purpose, and the Gospel-Commands shall in vain crave obedience, or so much as the duty of hearing the Gospel, from such as are not yet redeemed from their vain conversation, or not yet converted: For that Redemption is promised to them absolutely, without any condition required of them, saith this way.
Obj. If works have a causative influence on the possession of glory, as working on wages, and fighting on victory, then must they have influence on just possession also: For possession, except it be just, is no possession, but usurpation.
Answ. Possession is essentially the enjoying of any thing pleasant, gainfull, yea or honest, whether the title be just or unjust. The Title is accidentall to the Possession.
Obj. 2. He that possesseth the Crown, possesseth the Diamonds and pretious stones and the worth of the Crown; Therefore he that possesseth life, possesseth the right and title to it.
Answ. True: but hence it followeth not but possession and right to what we possesse do differ in their nature. Nor do we properly possess the right of possession: for the right or title is modus rei, non res, the maner of and the due or the undue way of the possession thereof.
Obj. 3. Is not possession of eternall life from Christ, as well as the title or right to the Crown from Him?
Ans. True, both are from Christ, but not the same way. Possession of the Crowne is the enjoying thereof, and is from free grace, and we, as willing and sanctified agents, make use thereof: But Christ alone bought with his blood the title and right to it. And when he gave his life for the rightfull and due possession of glory to us, we did contribute nothing either request or help to procure the title, and the grace to enter in to the possession by faith is the fruits also of free grace. Nor can it be denyed but our good works, by which we enter into possession of the Crown, are also the fruit of Christs death: but yet not so as there is any meritorious or federall power of deserving the possession communicate to our works; Only they are made by Christs death the oblidged way to the possession of life.
Obj. 4. How then is there a promise of the life to come made to Godlinesse, 1 Tim. 4. 8?
Answ. That promise is neither a promise of the Covenant of Works, for by the deeds of the Law no flesh can be saved: Nor is it a federall promise of the Covenant of Grace, strictly so called, except any would say that it is called a promise especially for faith, which is speciall Godlinesse, and the acknowledging of the truth, which is according to godlinesse, Tit. 1. 1. and so a
promise made to the Godly in so far as he is in Christ by faith, and in Christ is the promise of life, 2 Tim. 1.1. Nor 3. is the promise of a title and right, which is made to Christ our Ransone payer, made to our Godlinesse, as if it did buy our right to life eternall, or were the price thereof. 4. Life is promised to Believers who work, not because they work: And 5. the Lord in these only showeth the order of bringing men to glory, not the causes of the right and title to glory, except we say the mowing of the first quarter of the Meadow is the cause of the mowing of the second, because it makes way to the mowing of the second, and the mowing of the second quarter is a cause of the mowing of the third, and so forth, untill all be mown. As, because God gives grace to work, to run, to use means, therefore he giveth, of free grace, the crown of life in the possession thereof.
Obj. Adams Law-obedience should only have so, and by this way been the cause or way to the possession?
Ans. Not so, if Adam had perfected his obedience, he should have claimed life by right of sinlesse, federall merit, ex pacto,without suiting of it by any title of grace merited by CHRIST, not so we. Its true beleevers are called [foreign], worthy, Rev. 3. but that is legally in Christ the Head, not that the meritorious worth of Christ goeth out of himself and renders our works intrinsecally meritorious.
Whether or not suffered Christ for any sin against the Gospel only, such as unbeleef finall, which is conceived to be the only sin against the Gospel. That Christ died not for all without exception. The unwarrantablenesse of that Doctrine, how the Law commands justifying faith and repentance, how not.
IT may appear that Christ suffered not for any sin which is onely against the Gospel, such as finall unbeleef: If any sins be considered in any other respect as against the Gospel only, then Christ was not to suffer for any such sin so considered, for where no death is threatened, none is explicitely due, and where it is not so due to the sinner, nor should have been execute upon him, there it could not have been due to Christ nor executed upon him, For the Gospel threateneth not death to any sin, but finall unbeleef and rebellion (and for that Christ never died) therefore Christ died not for any sin as against the Gospel, nor suffered that which is no where threatened. But this is most doubtsome and cannot well stand. Its true that Christ suffered not
for finall unbeleef, it being the proper sin of some reprobates, to wit, of such as hear the Gospel, Joh. 8,21,24. 2 Thes. 1.7,8. But it seems against all Scripture that Christ should die for these, for whose sins he dies not: And so that 1. Christ should half and part the sins of the Reprobate, and the Scripture, I judge shall not admit that Christ bare in his own body, on the tree, some sins of the Reprobate, to wit, all their sins against the Law, absolutely, or conditionally, and he that bears not either absolutely, or conditionally their other sins against the Gospel,
to wit, their finall unbeleef and rebellion, for Christ was wounded and bruised for the transgressions and iniquities of these for whom he died; He must then have been wounded for some of their transgressions, and not wounded for other of their transgressions. And so the sins of the Reprobates, are divided between Christs satisfaction upon the Crosse, and their own satisfaction in Hell: But he suffered (one may say) conditionally only for the Reprobates sins against the Law upon the Crosse, if they beleeve, not otherwise? Ans. The same reall satisfaction conditionally that he performed on the Crosse, for the Elect, the same (say the Authors) he performed for the Reprobate, conditionally, if either beleeve, but because the one beleeves, it is accepted for payment for them, and the other beleeves not, it is not accepted for them.
2. As there is a satisfaction performed for some sins, not for all, not for finall unbeleef, that sin then must be in the same case with the sin of the fallen Angels, there is no sacrifice for it, nor is Christs death applicable by divine ordination to purge men from finall unbeleef more then to purge Devils from any sins they commit. 3. The same incorruptible price of the blood of the Lamb that is given to ransome all from wrath, Matth. 20.28. 1 Tim. 2.6. conditionally, is given to buy all, for whom Christ died, from their vain conversation, also, 1 Pet. 1.18. that is to merite faith to them conditionally. Shew us the condition of the one more then the other. If a condition cannot be shown, Christ must have payed the price of blood upon the Crosse, for some upon intention, for others upon another unlike intention. 4. If Christ died for all, not because they did will and beleeve, but that they might will and beleeve; and if Jesus suffered without the Camp, that he might sanctifie the people by his own blood, Heb. 13.12. Heb. 10.10. That he might wash them from their sins, and make them Kings and Priests to God, Rev. 1.5,6. That they might offer up themselves holy living sacrifices to him, Rom. 12.1. upon a great designe of love, to cleanse them with the washing of water by the Word, and present them a glorious Church without spot or wrinkle, Eph. 5.26,27. If he gave himself for them, that they should live to righteousnesse, being dead to sins, 1 Pet. 2.24. That they might be delivered from the present evill world, Gal. 1.4. If Christ gave himself
for these, for whom he dyed, that he might redeem them from all iniquity, and might purifie them to
himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works, Tit. 2.14. Then did he
die to redeem all men from iniquity, even from finall unbelief the great iniquitie, and from the vain conversation of finall unbelief,
and that they might be dead to sins,
especially the sin of finall unbelief: Except it be said that Christ gave a
price to buy faith to all Reprobate and Elect, and to redeem them from finall
unbelief, if all would be willing. But to commit to their free-will the
efficacie of Redemption, which Prosper
saith, maketh the will of God valide and
effectuall, and unvalide and weak, according as the will of man: which Davenantius, Bishop of Salisburie (if that opus postbumum have been written by him in his riper years, and
revised by himself) justly censures as the boyl of Pelagian Doctrine, which Faustus
Rhegiensis did covertly teach: The
Lord (saith he) redeems such as are
willing, being a rewarder of their good or evill wils. Now hardly can these
eschew this Pelagianisme who teach,
that the death of Christ is an universall salve applicable, by the decree of
God, to save all and every one of mankinde, Christian and Pagan, so they
actually believe: For it cannot be said, that Christ hath died to make all mankinde saveable, upon condition of
actuall faith to receive Christ
preached: for so Infants, to whom Christ
preached is in no tollerable sense applicable, that way, by any ordination of
God, if they actually believe, shal be no parts of the world, & they must
be excluded from Baptism. And it cannot be said that this argument shal
militate against us; for we do not defend such a conditionall applicabilitie of
Christ upon condition of faith actual in preached Christ even to infants in the
Visible Church, yet we teach they are in Covenant with God, and so God hath his
decree of election to Glory and Redemption in Christ, among infants as among
aged professours. 2. There is a providentiall, and to many thousands of Pagans,
who never heard, nor could hear of Christ, an invincible impediment, and so
Christ is not applicable by Gods decree to them, upon condition of actuall
seems to me physically impossible, that there is such a thing as the Indians worship Satan under such a name and in such rites, if I never heard of the Indians, or of their God, or their worship: So neither can they worship Christ in a Gospel-way, who never heard of him. Its impossible to beleeve a non ens, Christ offered in the Gospel is very nothing and so not applicable to thousands by any decree of God. 3. This is not written in Scripture. God hath decreed that Christ be Preached and life be offered actually to all and every one of all and every Nation under Heaven, and this opinion saith that Christ died and satisfied offended Justice for the sins of all and every one of all and every Nation under heaven, except for finall unbeleef. The Antecedent is clear by Scripture and experience. God fulfills his decrees irresistibly: But he never sent the Preached Gospel to as many as these Authors say he died for. Nor can they themselves teach any such thing: Nor is this true, God hath decreed that Christ in the Preached Gospel and salvation may be offered to all and every one, old and young, of all and every Nation, in all Generations, upon condition of actuall beleeving. And yet for all these, without exception, Christ died, say they. For not to say, God never decreed that such may be offered to infants of Pagans, for whom they say Christ died. To make a thing that physically is possible, the object of a decree of God, we must say that God hath decreed to give the gift of tongues to all Professours and Pastours to speak to all and every Nation in their own Language, and to make an offer of Christ: For there be many Nations, who never heard of Christ, and understand not writing or any of the commonest Latine and Greek, and there is not any such decree revealed in the word, and we can not but know such gifts of Tongues are not bestowed on men, and without this it is physically impossible to communicate the Gospel. It shall not help to say that Christians should travell to all Countreys and learn their Tongues, that so they may communicate the Gospel; and it is their sin they do not so. And therefore God hath decreed that the Gospel may be offered and Christ applicable. Ans. 1. What shall become of the aged, and of multitudes, for whom Christ died, who must die in Paganism, before Christians can be so mixed and learn the Tongues of all Nations
under Heaven? 2. Did ever the Apostles to whom the Lord
gave the gift of the tongues, go to this Nation and not to this, but by the
call of the Spirit, to
every one cannot be conditionall, in so far as the condition is referred to dying, to wit, if they believe; for so believing must go before dying, either really, which is manifestly false: for multitudes for whom Christ dyed had neither being nor believing, when he dyed for them; Or in the prescience of God, and that destroyes their principles: for so Christ cannot have died for all and every one, foreseeing that all and every one would believe: for he never foresaw that the Reprobate should believe. Then must the condition of dying or Redeeming, or of paying the ransone of His blood (these being all one) be referred to Gods accepting of Christs death for so many or for all, if they should believe. And the same way the Argument is as formerly: For God accepteth the payed ransome for all and every one, if they all really believe, or if they all and every one be foreseen of God to believe before the Lords accepting of them. Both are false, as is evident, and so they say in the issue what we say, and contradict themselves, to wit, that believers, and only believers, are these for whom Christ died. We before said, the promises are conditionally to all within the Visible Church, but so as the condition relates only to the benefite promised, we shall have remission and life, if we believe, but not otherwise: But now the Covenant-promise, which is accepted of, and assented unto by Professors, in their very profession in themselves or their parents, is absolutely made to all within the Visible Church, and they are Covenant-wayes ingadged and say, and professe they are the Lords people, and they take him, and no other, for their God, whether they obey and believe, or no: for a people, not right in heart, may bind themselves in Covenant with God, Deut. 29. 10,11,12,13,14. compared with 21,22,23. Deut. 31.27. Josh. 24.22. compared with Judg. 2.12,13. So God absolutely intends to save all for whom Christ dies, and by his death intends to give a price to redeem them from hell and from unbelief, or their vain conversation, 1 Pet. 1.18. from all iniquitie, Tit. 2.14. from this present evill world, Gal. 1.14. Ergo, from finall unbeleef the greatest iniquity of a present evill world. But here the case widely varies, upon no condition, that we can read in holy Scripture, gave Christ a price, a ransome of blood to redeem men from unbeleef and from all iniquitie, this price must be
absolutely given, and grace purchased to all whose sins
Christ did bear in the Crosse that they may beleeve, that they may be
sanctified, Heb. 13.12. 1 Pet. 2.24. 2. Sinnes of Thomas, refusing to beleeve the
resurrection of Christ, and of Peter
denying the Lord before men, and the Gospel-sinnes of beleevers, after they are
justified, and are inlightened, must be sins against the Covenant of Grace, as
well as against the Law. And the denying of Christ
before men hath a sad threatning of everlasting death, Matth. 10.32. Mar. 8.38.
annexed to it, if they repent not. And shall these within the
committed against the Gospel, but they are also sinnes against the Law: because God incarnate and Immanuel is God, and leaves not off to be God consubstantiall with the Father, because he assumes the nature of man. Then as the first Command oblidgeth Abraham to sacrifice his son Isaac, when God shall reveal that Command, and Moses and the people are by that first Command to believe their deliverance out of Egypt, and so if the first Command oblidge us to believe and obey all Commands and Promises and Threatnings of God, revealed and to be revealed, because the Lord is God, then must Christ God Redeemer and Immanuel be beleeved by this Command, and so finall unbelief and finall despising of Christ God Redeemer is as directly against the first Command (and so not a sin only threatned and forbidden in the Gospel) as simple unbelief and simple despising of Christ God Redeemer; For the believing & final believing, and unbelief and unbelief, continuing to the end, differ in the accident of duration, not in nature and essence, As a Rose that grows for a moneth only, and a Rose of the same nature that groweth and flourisheth for three moneths. Otherwise Christ could not have pronounced Peter blessed, [foreign], Mat. 16.17. in the present, for believing in the present: for he should not have been blessed to the end: as Solon said of his blessed man, And this cannot but subvert our faith, crush the peace, hope, consolation of weak Believers, to whom undoubtedly the promise of perseverance is absolutely made, Jer. 31. 31,35. Jer. 32. 39,40. Isai. 54. 10. Isai. 59. 20,21. Joh. 4.14. Joh. 10. 27,28.
2. If there be as formall a transgression of the first Command in finall unbelief, as in unbelief simply considered, and in the other sins of Judas and other Apostates. Why but as Christ bare in his body the sins of unbelief and satisfied for them, he must so also bear the sins of finall rebellion and unbelief? And shall we believe that Christ payed a satisfactory ransone of blood upon the crosse for the yesterdayes unbelief of Judas, and not for the dayes unbelief?
If it be said, No man can break the Gospel Covenant, for it is an everlasting Covenant. Ans. Its an everlasting Covenant, but yet all who sin against the commanding love and authority of our Immanuel, especially they so professing to be his, do truly break the Covenant: but they so break it, as it leaves not off to be the
Covenant of life both to the breakers, if they repent and beleeve, and to others: for so is the nature of this Covenant, and so it is everlasting, but the Covenant of Works if once broken, ceases to be a Covenant of life for ever, because the nature of it is, to admit of no repentance at all. Obj. Does not the Law command the sinner offending God to mourn and be humbled, and confesse? Ans. It doth. But it injoines not repentance as a way of life, with a promise of life to the repenter, as the Law or as a Covenant of Works commands to its native and proper Covenanters obedience and every single act of obedience as a way to obtain the reward of a Law-life, nor does the Law as a Covenant of Works command justifying faith and reliance upon God Redeemer, or Immanuel: but rather as the Law of Nature, or as the Law of thankfulnesse to a Ransoning and Redeeming God, the Law does this. Though in a speciall Covenant way the Gospel command faith in Christ.
Obj. But finall unbeleef as against God Redeemer and so considered is the only breach of the Covenant of Grace: He that beleeves not is condemned, as the man that rejects the only remedie of sin.
The only breach of the Covenant of Grace, is too narrow to be the adequat cause
of damnation, for many Pagans who never heard of Christ and are under no
Covenant, but that of Works, are condemned not for not beleeving in him of whom they never heard, Rom. 10.14. nor for
breach of the Covenant of Grace, but for breach of the Covenant of Works. 2.
Unbelief may be called the nearest cause of damnation to such as perish within
suffer satisfactory punishment for these same sins done
against the Law: And as strange that Christ should die for any, and not die for
their sinnes, since the Scripture useth the word of dying for sinnes, Rom. 4.25
delivered from our sinnes, Christ is a
propitiation for our sinnes, and (the same way) not for ours only, but for the sinnes of the whole world; he died
for sinners, Heb. 2.17. that he might make reconciliation for the
sinnes of the people: that is, for the sinfull people, or sinners, Heb. 9.28. so Christ was once offered to bear the sinnes of many: That is to
bear the sins of the sinfull many that he died for, Heb. 10.12. But this man
after he had offered one sacrifice for sin, sat down on the right hand of God:
that is, after he had offered a sacrifice for sinners. 1 Pet. 3. 18. Christ once
suffered for sin, that is, for sinners, 1 Cor. 15.3. I delivered unto
you how Christ died for our sinnes, that is, for the persons of us sinners.
1 Joh. 3.5. He was manifested to take away our sinnes. 1 Joh. 4.10. Herein is love--that he sent his Son to be a propitiation for our sinnes. Rev. 1.5.
To him that loved us, and washed us from
our sinnes--be glory. Gal. 1. 4. He gave himself for our sinnes. Now it
must not be asserted, but proven that in all these places where he is said to
be a propitiation for the sins of the
world; and hath taken away our sinnes speaking (as these Authors say) of
the whole visible Church, and not of the elect onlie that Christ hath died and
by his death hath taken away some sinnes, and hath suffered for some sinnes,
and not for all sinnes, not for the finall unbeleef of sinners, if it be said,
that we cannot teach that Christ suffered for finall unbeleef, we grant it: But
then we say that Christ suffered not for finall unbeleevers and for the other
sins of finall unbeleevers, since suffering for sins and for persons that are
sinners, to bring them to God, 1 Pet.
3. 18. are conjoined. And God was in
Christ reconciling the world to himself, not imputing their trespasses unto
them, 2 Cor. 5. 19. Therefore there must be a pardoned and a justified
world, and so truely blessed world, as Paul and David teach, Psal. 32.
to all the world; as is clear, Tit. 3.3,4,5. Eph. 2.1,2,3,4,5. We seek a warrand of Gods not imputing to this loved world their trespasses against the Law, and of his imputing to the same world the trespasses of rebellion and finall unbelief: And how Christs blood, shed for persons, both reconciles them to God, and leaves them in wrath, imputes not their trespasses to them, and makes them blessed, as David sayes, Ps. 32. 1. and imputes their finall unbelief to them, and leaves them under a curse: Nor shall it help the mater to say that finall unbelief may be considered as both against the Law, and as only forbidden in the Gospel. And in the former respect Christ hath suffered for it, not in the latter. For if the [foreign], the contrariety between finall unbelief and the first Command, as it is a rebellion against God manifested in the flesh, be satisfied for by Christ on the crosse; How can it condemn the person, as sure it doth? Joh. 3.18,36. Joh. 8.21,24. It cannot be said that Christ died for finall unbeleef, so we beleeve.
2. What speciall [foreign] and repugnancie to the Law of God is there in finall unbelief, that is not a repugnancie to the Covenant of Works and Grace both? And what repugnancie to the Covenant of Grace which is not also contrair to the Law? This I grant (which I desire the Reader carefully to observe) the Law and the Covenant of Grace do not one and the same way command faith, and forbid unbelief. I speak now of the Covenant of Works and of the Covenant of Grace as they are two Covenants specifically and formally different.
For 1. the Law as the Law commands 1. Faith in the superlative degree, as it doth all acts of obedience, and so doth it Gospel repentance. Because the Law commands all obedience most exact and perfect, and condemnes faith in the positive degree, though sincere and lively, as sinfully deficient. The Gospel doth only require sincere faith, and condemneth not for the want of the degrees of faith most perfect, though the Law of thankfulnesse to the Ransome-payer (which Law is common to both Covenants) require that we believe in the highest degree, because Christ hath expressed to us the greatest love, Joh. 3.16. Joh. 15. 13.
2. The Law as the Law requires faith not finall only, but faith Immanuel for ever, and that we be born with the Image of God
that we beleeve at all times, under the pain of damnation. But, the Covenant of Grace, because it admits of repentance, and holds forth the meeknesse, forbearance, and longanimitie of Christ, is satisfied with faith at any time, or what hour of the day they shall be brought in.
3. The Law requires faith, with the promise of Law-life: The Covenant of Grace requires faith, promises grace to beleeve, with promise of a Gospel-life.
4. The Law requires not faith in Christ with sinners Covenantways as a work to be legally rewarded, for it finding all sinners, and all by nature, Covenant-breakers, cannot indent with them that have broken the Covenant, to promise life to them by tennor of the Covenant, which now ceaseth to be a Covenant of life, and cannot but condemn, and is now rendered impossible to justifie and save, by reason of the weaknesse of the flesh, Rom. 8.3. All the reprobate then are this way under the Covenant of Works, that they are (as it were) possible Covenanters lyable to suffer the vengeance of a broken Covenant, but not formally active Covenanters as Adam was. But if Christ suffer for finall unbeleef, as it is against the Law as the Law, how is it charged upon reprobates as a sin against the Gospel only? Since no wrong done to God Redeemer can be any thing but a sin against God, and a breach of the first Command. I deny not but finall unbeleef hath an aggravation that it is the nearest barre and iron gate between the sinner and the only Saviour of sinners, but yet the putting of such a barre is a sin against the Law. Neither can it be said that only finall unbeleef is the only meritorious cause of damnation to such as hear the Gospel. For beside final unbelief there is also a contrariety betwixt the murthers, Sodomies, &c. of professours and the Law for which they suffer in hell eternally, Rev. 21.8.c.18.7.
Quest. Whether doth the Lord Mediator as Mediator, command the same good works in the Covenant of Grace which are commanded in the Covenant of Works?
Ans. According to the matter of the thing commanded, quoad rem mandatam, he commands the same, and charges
upon all and every one the morall duty even as Mediator, for he cannot loose the least of these Commandments, but simply they are not the same, quoad modum mandandi. It shall not be needfull to dispute whether they be commands differing in nature: For not only doth the Mediator command obedience upon his interposed Authority as Law-giver and Creator, but also as Lord Redeemer upon the motive of Gospel constraining love. In which notion he calls love the keeping of his Commandements (if they love him, Joh. 14.) the new Commandement of love.
Q. 2. Doth the Lord Mediator, in the Covenant of Grace, command the same good works to all, the same way?
CHRIST speaks to reprobats in the Visible Church, even when the matter of the command is Evangelick, as to non confederates of grace in a Law way, and in a Law intention. For he cannot bid them obey upon any other ground then legislative authority, not upon the ground of Redemption-love bestowed on them, or that he died out of love to save all and every one: For we disclaim that ground; or because he died out of a speciall design to save them as his chosen ones. For there is no ground for that untill we beleeve. But they are to obey upon the ground of Redemption-love, so they first beleeve and fiducially rely upon Christ the Saviour of all. But he commands Law-obedience to his chosen even as Mediator. (1.) Upon a Gospel intention to chase them to Christ, Gal. 3.23. (2.) When they are come to hedge them in, with Law-threatning to adhere, in a Godly sear, more closely to Christ. But the Lord commands no beleever to believe hell in the event to be their reward, but to beleeve perseverance and life, but hell in the deserving. Hence that, 1 Tim. 1.9. The Law [foreign], is not made for the righteous (to condemn them: as if God thereby opened up to them their doom) but for the lawlesse, &c. to let them be damned and see their damnation.
The differences in the promise of the Covenants.
Quest. WHat is the speciall difference of the promise of the two Covenants?
Ans. It is known that only life eternall is promised in the Law, if a right to the things of this life was promised to Adam, it is like he behoved to compleat his course of obedience, and merit a right legall to the herbs and fruit of the earth, beside the right he had by gift of Creation, ex dono Creatoris, non jure operum.
But 2. There was no promise made
to Adam of perseverance, and so no
promise made to him of influences to work in Adam to will and to do; so the influences by which he obeyed was, purum donum Creatoris, a meer gift of
the Creator, not a gift of either the grace of Christ, or a promised grace, though in a large sense, it may be
called a grace, or donum gratis datum:
For God gave that influence upon no
obligation. Now that it was not a grace promised is evident by
the contrair where of they hold, if it be promised conditionally, the question shall recur, what shall be the condition, and another condition then the willingnesse of the will to persevere cannot be given, and so the argument shall rise against it self, and the issue must be, God give to Adam actuall perseverance, if he should be willing to persevere, that is, he gives to Adam perseverance, if he give him perseverance; for willingnesse to persevere is perseverance, or a very large part thereof.
3. But persevering grace and so
influence of grace to persevere is promised in the Covenant of Grace, Jer. 31.35. that they shall continue in
Covenant, more sure then the night and
the day. Jer. 32.40. I will put my
fear in their hearts, that they shall not depart from me. The meaning
cannot be, I will give them a power never to depart from me, if they will: For
so nothing is more promised in Christ
to the second
4. That these influences were purchased by Christs death is clear, because they are the nearest causes of our actuall believing and coming to Christ, of faith and perseverance that are given freely, and repentance and faith are given of Christ, Acts. 5.31. Zech. 12.10. 2 Tim. 2.25. Phil. 1.29. Ephes. 2. 1,2,3. Ezek. 36.26,27. Eph. 1. 17,18,19,20. John 6. 44,45.
5. So obedience to the Covenant
of Works was
(2.) And came from his concreated self (the Image of God that was his own) by a common influence, and neither was the Image of God, nor the influences of God acts of free grace, or the purchase of grace properly so called.
(2.) Adam had a Law-claim to the Crown without sin, if he had continued in obedience, and did merite ex pacto life eternall, our new Covenant obedience in habituall and actuall performance is so a duty, that it is also promised and a benefite merited to us by the death of Christ, whereas Adams obedience was purum officium, non officium promissum, as our Gospel-obedience is.
6. Hence in obedience distinguish two. 1. The nature of obe-ence. 2. The worth and excellencie of obedience. The more the obedience be from our selves, the more it partakes of the nature of obedience. Hence four kinds of obedience are to be considered. 1. Christs obedience was the most legall obedience, and also the most perfect, for he obeyed most of his own, of any, from his own will purely, Joh. 10.18. Mat. 26.39,42,44. His own blood, Hebr. 9.14. Rev. 1.5. My blood, saith he, Matth. 26.28. He gave his life a ransome, Matth. 20.28. He gave himself a ransome, 1 Tim. 2.6. By himself he purged our sins, Heb. 1.3. Gave himself for his Church, Eph. 5.25. Offered himself, Heb. 9.14. And therefore the satisfaction that he made was properly his own. Its true the life, flesh and blood which he offered to God, as common to the three Persons, was equally the life, flesh, blood of God by way of Creation and efficiency: For God as God created His Man-hood, and gave him a body, but that Man-hood, in abstracto, was not the offering, but all these, in concreto, and the self, including the value and the dignitie, was not the Fathers, not the Spirits, but most properly his own, and the Sons only by way of personall termination and subsistence. 1. There are contradictory tearms affirmed of this holy self the Son, and of the Spirit and the Father. The Son was God incarnate. 2. The son offered himself, his own life, his own blood to God for our sins. Neither the Father nor the Spirit at all is God incarnate, neither Father nor Spirit offered his own life, his own blood to God; Neither the Father nor the Spirit hath (to speak so) a personall or terminative dominion
over the flesh and blood of Christ. 2. Christ was in no
sort oblidged to empty himself, and cannot be under a jus or obligation to the Creator
or the creature. Of free love and his own will he became Mediator God Man, and being created man, and having said (here am I to do thy will) having
stricken hands with God as Surety of the Covenant, none more oblidged, being
holy and true; And therefore though Christ-Man
was most strictly tyed to give the Father
obedience, yet he was not oblidged to give him such and such obedience, so
noble, so excellent, from a personall Union: for Christ God cannot properly come under any obligation. Hence the obedience
of Christ is most meritorious, because maxime
indebita, in regard of the God head
most undebtfull, and yet obedience most debtfull in regard of the Man Christ. 3. Most from his own will
personally considered, the affection, love, the bended will, highest delight to
obey, lay personally near to the heart and holy will of Christ God: With desire have I desired to eat this
Passeover. He went foremost in the journey to
2. The Elect Angels next to Christ gave obedience in their Law course, but not so properly of their own as Christ, for some
discriminating and strengthning grace they had from Christ Mediator their head, Col. 2.10. that they should not fall, and something from the Election of Grace, which do not necessarily agree to the Covenant of Works, which they performed without sin, and the more extrinsecall help from grace, the lesse merit, so farre is grace from being, as Jesuites say, the essentiall requisite of merit, that the work is lesse ours, and so the lesse meritorious, that it hath grace. Let not any say then Christs obedience that came from the fulnesse of the Spirit without measure [foreign], must so be lesse meritorious, which is absurd, for the reason why grace in Angels, and men who are meer creatures diminishes the nature of merit, is, because grace is not their own, nor their proper due, but supernaturall or preternaturall, and so hurts the nature of the merit, but to the meriting person Christ-God Man nothing is supernaturall, nothing extrinsecall, nothing not his own: Grace is his own as it were by a sort of personall dominion, not to say that the Man Christ as man did not merit, yet as man he was born sinless and with the full Image of God.
3. Adam gave more faintly obedience, more indeed of his own, but it was lesse obedience, and lesse will in it, then the obedience of Angels, and had he continued, his obedience had been proper obedience; but this is to be observed, none did ever, actu secundo, and by the only help of simple nature attain Justification and Salvation by the simple Covenant of Works, but men and evill Angels fell under both, though that was a possible Covenant and holy and spirituall, yet God set it up to be an inlet to pure Justice in the reprobate Angels, and so to free grace in elect men.
4. The obedience of faith, or Gospel-obedience, in the fourth place, hath lesse of the nature of obedience, then that of Adam, or of the Elect Angels, or that of Christs. Its true we are called obedient Children, and they are called the Commandements of Christ, and Christ hath taken the Morall Law and made use of it in an Evangelick way, yet we are more (as it were) patients, in obeying Gospel Commands, not that we are meer patients, as Libertines teach, for grace makes us willing, but we have both supernaturall habits and influences of grace furnished to us from the Grace of Christ, who hath merited both to us, and so in Gospel-obedience
we offer more of the Lords own, and lesse of our own,
because he both commands, and gives us grace to obey. And so to the elect
beleever the Law is turned in Gospel, he by his Grace fulfilling (as it were) the righteousnesse of the Law in us by
begun new obedience,
and life eternall, but his beleeving is not reckoned to
him [forxeign], of Law-debt, but of love and Grace debt: See
Q. What sort of doing the Law requireth?
The Scripture is clear, that consumate, and continued in doing to the end is required by the Law. Paul interpreting Moses, Deut. 26.27. Gal. 3. 10. Cursed be every one, [foreign] who continueth not in all that are written in the Law to do them. Deut. 26.27. Cursed is be who shall not confirm. It is a word they use in inacting of Laws, when we say, Be it statuted and ordained: the word in Piel is three times in th$ Book of $sther, to ordain by a Law: Which clearly saith that
the Covenant of Works was a work of justice and such a time God set to Adam, so as to the end he was to run it out, but how long he was a viator or traveller in his course of obedience no man knows
Whether faith as lively and true, or faith as continuing to the end, be the condition of the Covenant of Grace?
These, who in all points, as in this, make this new Covenant a Covenant of Works, contend that faith as enduring to the end, must be the condition of the new Covenant. 1. Because the promise of the reward. 2. The reward is given to him that endures to the end. And this faith (say they) is the adequat and compleat condition of the Covenant of Grace as full and consumate obedience to the end in degrees and parts.
2. But faith as lively and sincere is the condition of the Covenant, the nature and essence of this faith is to continue to the end, but continuance to the end is an accidentall condition of this onely essentiall condition of the Covenant, faith quæ, which endures to the end, but not quâ aut quatenus, as it endures to the end is that which saves us and justifies us as the condition of the Covenant. 1. Faith as lively units us to Christ and justifies whether it be come to the full perfection or not. Otherwise 1. no man should be ingrafted in Christ as branches in the Vine Tree, no man partakers of the Divine nature, no man quickened, but he that dies in finall beleeving: Whereas, Joh. 5.24. he that beleeveth before his finall continuance to the end, [foreign], hath passed from death to life and shall never come to condemnation. And in this is the difference of the condition of the Covenant of Works, that Adam had no right to life by one or two the most sincere acts and highest in measure, except he continue, [foreign] (as the Law saith, Deut. 26.27. Gal. 3.10.) to the end, otherwise at the first act of
obedience perfect in degrees and parts, God behoved by Covenant (except the Lord
should break the first Covenant himself, before man sin, which is blasphemous)
to have given him confirming grace and the reward of life; but the condition of
the Covenant of Grace is that, He that
beleeves, Joh. 3.36. [foreign], is
not condemned, yea is freed from all condemnation,
2. Faith, before it come to seed
and full harvest brings solid peace and comfort and saveth: So Christ to the blind man, Luke 18.42. thy faith [foreign], hath saved thee, not a bare miraculous faith,
but that which apprehends remission of sinnes, as he speaks to the woman who
did wash his feet with tears, Luke 7.
50. and to the paralytick man, Mat.
9.2. seeing their faith, be of good
cheer, go in peace, thy sins are forgiven. If they be but forgiven
conditionally, so they beleeve to the end, whereas they may fall away. 1. What
comfort and good cheer? 2. What peace being justified by faith,
Joh. 10. 27,28. Joh. 4.14. 1 Pet. 1. 3,4,5. Joh. 11. 26,27. As we believe life eternall, and that purchased by the merite of Christs death, the one as well as the other, then faith as finall cannot be the condition; And who can think that God commands faith in God Immanuel in the Covenant of Works? But faith in God Immanuel to the end is not commanded in the Covenant of Works, but only in the Covenant of Grace. 4. Faith justifies and saves as sincere, be it great or small: but if it justifie not and save not, but as it endures to the end, then no man is compleatly justified and saved and united to Christ, untill he die.
Since faith (as all other graces in a child of God) is imperfect and still growing, 2 Pet. 3.18. and we are to pray, Lord increase our faith, none shall be justified and saved, but he that hath the greatest faith, if faith only, which endures to the end, be the condition of the Covenant, and such a faith as groweth and indures to the end: For take one who for twenty years believeth, the first two years he being united to Christ, hath right to Christ, Joh. 15. 1,2,3,4,5. Joh. 17.21,22. Joh. 14.16. Joh. 16. 7,8,13. Joh. 4.14. Joh. 7.37,38,39. he shall not be judged, not condemned, hath passed from death to life, shall never die, Joh. 3.36. 1 Joh. 5.11,12. Joh. 4.24. Joh. 11. 25,26. then should he die the end of the first year of his believing, by the Scripture, he must be saved, else he must be damned, who yet died in true faith and yet never fell away, which were strange: But by this opinion either the remnant sound believing should be no condition of justification and salvation, because the man is justified and saved without it, and the faith of one or two years gave him right to Christ and saved him? Ergo the remnant faith is not a condition of the Covenant, but a persevering by grace promised and a persevering in that faith, as also by their way who make persevering faith the only condition of the Covenant of Grace. 1. Faith and works are confounded: whereas to be saved by faith is to be saved before, and to be justified before we can do good works, and the jus or title to righteousnesse and salvation, coming only from the price and Redemption that is in Jesus Christ, is not more or lesse, and growes not more then the worth of the ransone of the blood called the blood of God, Acts 20.28. does grow, and it is to be justified by grace and by
faith, and then works come in as the fruit of our justification and salvation, Eph. 2. Ye are not saved by works, lest any man should boast, in a righteousnesse of his own, coming from no merite of Christ, which buyeth determinating grace, and indeclinably leads and bows the will; Otherwise we may boast, that is, glory in the Lord, who worketh all our works for us, Psal. 34.2. Isa. 41.16. Isa. 26. 12. The salvation and righteousnesse is the gift of God. What then shall be the room of works? He answers No room at all as causes of justification and salvation, by an excellent antanaclasis, as learned Trochrig: for he answers, We are his workmanship created in Christ Jesus to good works, which God hath before ordained that we should walk in them. Then by grace we have the full right to righteousnesse and salvation by the ransome of blood, which is Christs, Papists and Arminians dare not bring in Evangelick works or faith as an Evangelick work here, though they be too bold. 2. Being once made the creation of God in Christ, and having obtained right by the blood of Christ to salvation, we walk by his grace in good works as leading us to the possession of the purchased inheritance. 3. The Authors of this stand for the Apostasie of the Saints, and they cannot eschew it who make this finall faith that takes in in its essence good works as the soul of it or charity (as Papists say) as the form of it, the only condition of the Covenant.
Quest. But is not life eternall given and promised only to faith which continues to the end? Ans. Faith is considered two wayes. In its nature. 2. In its duration and existence. As to the former, saving faith is of that nature that it is apt to endure, it hath a sort of immortality, so the promise in titulo & jure, is made to that faith only which is of that nature that it must endure to the end, and the promise of life and remission is not made to a saving faith under the accident of enduring to the end, or for the years, suppon thirty or fourty years, or eight hundred years, or above that Adam or the Patriarchs lived in the state of beleeving, for a faith of some hours only shall save the repenting thief as well as a faith of many years. And 2. life eternall in the possession is promised and given only to the faith that continues to the end, not because of the duration because a longer enduring faith hath merit,
but that is by accident, in regard of the right to life and because God hath commanded persevering in faith, life is given only in possession to such a faith as endures, but we cannot say that the accidentall endurance and existence of faith for so many years doth save and justifie, as the living so many years makes a Child an heir to a great estate, for his being born the eldest son, makes him his fathers heir.
What faith is required in the Gospel.
THere is a legall faith, a duty commanded, the object of which is twofold, 1. Truths relating to the mind revealed and to be revealed. So Adam had a habit or habituall power to beleeve the Law and the Gospel upon supposition, it should be revealed. As a whole man beleeves skill in his Physitian to prevent diseases ere they come, and to remove them, when come. Its folly to say Adam stood in need, before he fell, of a supernaturall power to beleeve Evangelick truths, if he beleeved God to be true, he had such a power as to beleeve all was true, that God should reveal. 2. Adam had a faith of dependencie, to rely upon God in all possible evils feared.
2. The promise of life is not made to Law-faith more then to Law-love, or Law-fear, or Law-desire, more then to any other, but the promise is made to Evangelick-faith that layes hold on CHRIST as our righteousnesse. But for obeying the Commands Adam was to live, Gal. 3.13. [foreign] in them, by doing them, Ezek. 20.11. As Lavater, there is no absurditie if it be said men shall live, that is merit by free paction, life eternall: but then (saith Calvine) if a man keep the Law, he needs not the Grace of Christ. Obj. If faith be imputed, as it layes hold on Christs Righteousnesse, it must be the meritorious cause of Justification and by its inherent dignitie, for there is nothing more essentiall to faith, then to lay hold on Christs Righteousnesse. Ans. If faith were imputed as righteousnesse according to the act of laying
hold on Christ, it were true, but the act of faith is not imputed, but that which faith layes hold on, it being an instrument, to wit, the Righteousnesse of Christ, it is not an act of beleeving saith a Jesuit. And though they say the works Evangelick are from the habit of grace, so was Adam a patient, when God concreated his Image, and habituall righteousnesse in him. But Arminians and Jesuits do not say, nor darre not, that predeterminating Grace is from Christs merites, therefore yet the sinner may more boast then Adam, and say I have justified my self by the acts of free-will which is indifferent and from under all the bowing and determining or swaying of the Grace of Christ, for the free-will should have so whether Christ had died or not died.
Q. WHether is Christs Righteousnesse imputed and made ours, because we believe and apprehend it ours; or do we believe, because it is ours first before we believe?
There is a twofold imputation, one legall, another which for Doctrines cause we
call application or reall (though the legall imputation be also reall; but not
to us as the former) the Lords act of
laying the iniquity of us all upon Christ, Isa. 53.6. and the Lords making him sin for us, that is a sacrifice for
sin, 2 Cor. 5.21. evinces necessarily
the truth of this, the former imputation. For 2 Cor. 5.21. God was in Christ
reconciling the world to himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them.
If it be expounded of actuall reconciliation of persons, it may say something,
for the other imputation, but the other imputation is clear, Rom. 4.3. Abraham beleeved God, and it was counted to him for righteousnesse,
v. 7. Blessed is the man whose iniquities
are forgiven and whose sins are covered, v. 8. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord imputeth not sin, v. 9. Faith
(that is, that which faith beleeved, as hope is put for the thing hoped for,